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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:38:48 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001493
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameN-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine
DescriptionN-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine or N-Acetylphenylalanine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as N-acyl-alpha amino acids. N-acyl-alpha amino acids are compounds containing an alpha amino acid which bears an acyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom. N-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine can also be classified as an alpha amino acid or a derivatized alpha amino acid. Technically, N-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine is a biologically available N-terminal capped form of the proteinogenic alpha amino acid L-phenylalanine. N-acetyl amino acids can be produced either via direct synthesis of specific N-acetyltransferases or via the proteolytic degradation of N-acetylated proteins by specific hydrolases. N-terminal acetylation of proteins is a widespread and highly conserved process in eukaryotes that is involved in protection and stability of proteins (PMID: 16465618 ). About 85% of all human proteins and 68% of all yeast proteins are acetylated at their N-terminus (PMID: 21750686 ). Several proteins from prokaryotes and archaea are also modified by N-terminal acetylation. The majority of eukaryotic N-terminal-acetylation reactions occur through N-acetyltransferase enzymes or NAT’s (PMID: 30054468 ). These enzymes consist of three main oligomeric complexes NatA, NatB, and NatC, which are composed of at least a unique catalytic subunit and one unique ribosomal anchor. The substrate specificities of different NAT enzymes are mainly determined by the identities of the first two N-terminal residues of the target protein. The human NatA complex co-translationally acetylates N-termini that bear a small amino acid (A, S, T, C, and occasionally V and G) (PMID: 30054468 ). NatA also exists in a monomeric state and can post-translationally acetylate acidic N-termini residues (D-, E-). NatB and NatC acetylate N-terminal methionine with further specificity determined by the identity of the second amino acid. N-acetylated amino acids, such as N-acetylphenylalanine can be released by an N-acylpeptide hydrolase from peptides generated by proteolytic degradation (PMID: 16465618 ). In addition to the NAT enzymes and protein-based acetylation, N-acetylation of free phenylalanine can also occur. In particular, N-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine can be biosynthesized from L-phenylalanine and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme phenylalanine N-acetyltransferase (EC N-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine is a potential uremic toxin and is considered as a hazardous amphipathic metabolite of phenylalanine (PMID: 4038506 ). Many N-acetylamino acids, including N-acetylphenylalanine, are classified as uremic toxins (PMID: 26317986 ; PMID: 20613759 ). Uremic toxins are a diverse group of endogenously produced molecules that, if not properly cleared or eliminated by the kidneys, can cause kidney damage, cardiovascular disease and neurological deficits (PMID: 18287557 ). N-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine appears in large amount in urine of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), which is a human genetic disorder due to the lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme necessary to metabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine (PMID: 3473611 ). N-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine is a product of enzyme phenylalanine N-acetyltransferase [EC] Which is found in the phenylalanine metabolism pathway. N-Acetyl-L-phenylalanine is produced for medical, feed, and nutritional applications such as in the preparation of aspartame. Afalanine (N-Acetyl-DL-phenylalanine) is also approved for use as an antidepressant.
N-Acetylphenylalanine, (D,L)-isomer, 3H-labeledHMDB
N-Acetylphenylalanine, (L)-isomerHMDB
N-Acetylphenylalanine, (L)-isomer, 3H-labeledHMDB
N-Acetylphenylalanine, (D)-isomerHMDB
Chemical FormulaC11H13NO3
Average Mass207.2258 Da
Monoisotopic Mass207.08954 Da
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-acetamido-3-phenylpropanoic acid
Traditional Nameacetyl-L-phenylalanine
CAS Registry Number2018-61-3
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Not Available
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Bombyx moriLOTUS Database
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Daphnia pulexLOTUS Database
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylalanine and derivatives. Phenylalanine and derivatives are compounds containing phenylalanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of phenylalanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPhenylalanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point171 - 173 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility6450 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
LogP0.93Green, P. G., Hinz, R. S., Cullander, C., Yamane, G., & Guy, R. H. (1991). Lontophoretic delivery of amino acids and amino acid derivatives across the skin in vitro. Pharmaceutical research, 8(9), 1113-1120.
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.97 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.02ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.4 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity54.56 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability21.21 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022084
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID67404
KEGG Compound IDC03519
BioCyc IDCPD-439
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
PubChem Compound74839
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16259
Good Scents IDrw1265531
General References
  1. Sass JO, Mohr V, Olbrich H, Engelke U, Horvath J, Fliegauf M, Loges NT, Schweitzer-Krantz S, Moebus R, Weiler P, Kispert A, Superti-Furga A, Wevers RA, Omran H: Mutations in ACY1, the gene encoding aminoacylase 1, cause a novel inborn error of metabolism. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Mar;78(3):401-9. Epub 2006 Jan 18. [PubMed:16465618 ]
  2. Kucerova Z, Ticha M: Aromatic amino acids and their derivatives as ligands for the isolation of aspartic proteinases. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Apr 25;770(1-2):121-8. [PubMed:12013218 ]
  3. Mach H, Middaugh CR, Lewis RV: Detection of proteins and phenol in DNA samples with second-derivative absorption spectroscopy. Anal Biochem. 1992 Jan;200(1):20-6. [PubMed:1375815 ]
  4. Okajima K, Inoue M, Morino Y: Studies on the mechanism for renal elimination of N-acetylphenylalanine: its pathophysiologic significance in phenylketonuria. J Lab Clin Med. 1985 Jan;105(1):132-8. [PubMed:4038506 ]
  5. Roux A, Xu Y, Heilier JF, Olivier MF, Ezan E, Tabet JC, Junot C: Annotation of the human adult urinary metabolome and metabolite identification using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a linear quadrupole ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Anal Chem. 2012 Aug 7;84(15):6429-37. doi: 10.1021/ac300829f. Epub 2012 Jul 17. [PubMed:22770225 ]
  6. Van Damme P, Hole K, Pimenta-Marques A, Helsens K, Vandekerckhove J, Martinho RG, Gevaert K, Arnesen T: NatF contributes to an evolutionary shift in protein N-terminal acetylation and is important for normal chromosome segregation. PLoS Genet. 2011 Jul;7(7):e1002169. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002169. Epub 2011 Jul 7. [PubMed:21750686 ]
  7. Ree R, Varland S, Arnesen T: Spotlight on protein N-terminal acetylation. Exp Mol Med. 2018 Jul 27;50(7):1-13. doi: 10.1038/s12276-018-0116-z. [PubMed:30054468 ]
  8. Tanaka H, Sirich TL, Plummer NS, Weaver DS, Meyer TW: An Enlarged Profile of Uremic Solutes. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 28;10(8):e0135657. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135657. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26317986 ]
  9. Toyohara T, Akiyama Y, Suzuki T, Takeuchi Y, Mishima E, Tanemoto M, Momose A, Toki N, Sato H, Nakayama M, Hozawa A, Tsuji I, Ito S, Soga T, Abe T: Metabolomic profiling of uremic solutes in CKD patients. Hypertens Res. 2010 Sep;33(9):944-52. doi: 10.1038/hr.2010.113. Epub 2010 Jul 8. [PubMed:20613759 ]
  10. Vanholder R, Baurmeister U, Brunet P, Cohen G, Glorieux G, Jankowski J: A bench to bedside view of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 May;19(5):863-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2007121377. Epub 2008 Feb 20. [PubMed:18287557 ]
  11. Jellum E, Horn L, Thoresen O, Kvittingen EA, Stokke O: Urinary excretion of N-acetyl amino acids in patients with some inborn errors of amino acid metabolism. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 1986;184:21-6. [PubMed:3473611 ]