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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:39:02 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001334
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameDopamine
DescriptionDopamine is a member of the catecholamine family of neurotransmitters in the brain and is a precursor to epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Dopamine is synthesized in the body (mainly by nervous tissue and adrenal glands) first by the hydration of the amino acid tyrosine to DOPA by tyrosine hydroxylase and then by the decarboxylation of DOPA by aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (dopamine receptors) mediates its action, which plays a major role in reward-motivated behaviour. Dopamine has many other functions outside the brain. In blood vessels, dopamine inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator (at normal concentrations); in the kidneys, it increases sodium excretion and urine output; in the pancreas, it reduces insulin production; in the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa; and in the immune system, it reduces the activity of lymphocytes. Parkinson's disease, a degenerative condition causing tremor and motor impairment, is caused by a loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in an area of the midbrain called the substantia nigra. There is evidence that schizophrenia involves altered levels of dopamine activity, and most antipsychotic drugs used to treat this are dopamine antagonists, which reduce dopamine activity. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and addiction are also characterized by defects in dopamine production or metabolism. It has been suggested that animals derived their dopamine-synthesizing machinery from bacteria via horizontal gene transfer that may have occurred relatively late in evolutionary time. This is perhaps a result of the symbiotic incorporation of bacteria into eukaryotic cells that gave rise to mitochondria. Dopamine is elevated in the urine of people who consume bananas. When present in sufficiently high levels, dopamine can be a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin. A neurotoxin is a compound that disrupts or attacks neural tissue. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of dopamine are associated with neuroblastoma, Costello syndrome, leukemia, phaeochromocytoma, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency, and Menkes disease (MNK). High levels of dopamine can lead to hyperactivity, insomnia, agitation and anxiety, depression, delusions, excessive salivation, nausea, and digestive problems.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamineChEBI
3,4-DihydroxyphenethylamineChEBI
3-HydroxytyramineChEBI
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediolChEBI
4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diolChEBI
4-(2-Aminoethyl)catecholChEBI
4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatecholChEBI
DeoxyepinephrineChEBI
DopaminaChEBI
DopaminumChEBI
HydroxytyraminChEBI
MedopaKegg
3,4-DihydroxyphenylethylamineHMDB
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-pyrocatecholHMDB
a-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-b-aminoethaneHMDB
alpha-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethaneHMDB
DopaminHMDB
DopastatHMDB
DophamineHMDB
DynatraHMDB
HydroxytyramineHMDB
IntropinHMDB
OxytyramineHMDB
RevivanHMDB
3,4 DihydroxyphenethylamineHMDB
Hydrochloride, dopamineHMDB
Dopamine hydrochlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC8H11NO2
Average Mass153.1784 Da
Monoisotopic Mass153.07898 Da
IUPAC Name4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
Traditional Namedopamine
CAS Registry Number62-31-7
SMILES
NCCC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H11NO2/c9-4-3-6-1-2-7(10)8(11)5-6/h1-2,5,10-11H,3-4,9H2
InChI KeyVYFYYTLLBUKUHU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentus
Acacia berlandieriKNApSAcK Database
Acacia rigidula Benth.KNApSAcK Database
Actaea racemosaKNApSAcK Database
Actinidia chinensis
Agaricus bisporus
Agave
Alangium lamarckiiKNApSAcK Database
Alangium salviifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Allium ampeloprasum
Allium ascalonicum
Allium cepa
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium sativum
Allium schoenoprasum
Allium tuberosum
Aloysia triphylla
Amaranthus
Amelanchier alnifolia
Anacardium occidentale
Ananas comosus
Anas platyrhynchos
Anatidae
Anethum graveolens
Angelica keiskei
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosa
Anser anser
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolens
Apium graveolens var. dulce
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arachis hypogaea
Arctium lappa
Argemone mexicanaKNApSAcK Database
Aristolochia giganteaKNApSAcK Database
Armoracia rusticana
Artemisia dracunculus
Artemisia vulgaris
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asparagus officinalis
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Avena sativa L.
Averrhoa carambola
Basella alba
Benincasa hispida
Berberis amurensisKNApSAcK Database
Berberis aquifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Berberis aristataKNApSAcK Database
Berberis thunbergiiKNApSAcK Database
Berberis vulgarisKNApSAcK Database
Berberis wilsoniaeKNApSAcK Database
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Bison bison
Borago officinalis
Bos taurus
Bos taurus X Bison bison
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica napus var. napus
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italica
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica olereaceaKNApSAcK Database
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapa
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum alicastrum
Bubalus bubalis
Byrsonima crassifolia
Cajanus cajan
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibarius
Capparis spinosa
Capra aegagrus hircus
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuum
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Carapichea affinis-
Carica papaya L.
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya
Carya illinoinensis
Castanea
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Caulophyllum thalicroidesKNApSAcK Database
Cephaelis acuminataKNApSAcK Database
Ceratonia siliqua
Cervidae
Cervus canadensis
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamerion angustifolium
Chelidonium majusKNApSAcK Database
Chenopodium album
Chenopodium quinoa
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybus
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Cirsium
Cissampelos pareiraKNApSAcK Database
Citrullus lanatus
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus maxima
Citrus paradisi
Citrus reticulata
Citrus sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)Plant
Clematis parvilobaKNApSAcK Database
Cocculus diversifoliusKNApSAcK Database
Cocculus japonicusKNApSAcK Database
Cocos nucifera
Coffea arabica L.
Coffea canephora
Colocasia esculenta
Columba
Columbidae
Coptis japonicaKNApSAcK Database
Corchorus olitorius
Coriandrum sativum L.
Corydalis cavaKNApSAcK Database
Corylus
Corylus avellana
Crateva religiosa
Crocus sativus
Cucumis melo
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maxima
Cucurbita moschata
Cuminum cyminum
Curcuma longa
Cyclea barbataKNApSAcK Database
Cyclea peltataKNApSAcK Database
Cydonia oblonga
Cymbopogon citratus
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Cytisus copariusKNApSAcK Database
Cytisus scopariusKNApSAcK Database
Daucus carota
Daucus carota ssp. sativus
Delphinium pentagynumKNApSAcK Database
Dicentra spectabilisKNApSAcK Database
Dilphinium caeruleum-
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Diospyros
Diospyros kaki
Diospyros virginiana
Dromaius novaehollandiae
Durio zibethinus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elaeis
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomum
Empetrum nigrum
Equus caballus
Eragrostis tef
Eriobotrya japonica
Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa
Erythrina crista-galliKNApSAcK Database
Eschscholzia californicaKNApSAcK Database
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Eutrema japonicum
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fagopyrum tataricum
Fagus
Feijoa sellowiana
Ficus carica
Flammulina velutipes
Foeniculum vulgare
Fragaria x ananassa
Fumaria officinalisKNApSAcK Database
Gallus gallus
Garcinia mangostana
Gaylussacia baccata
Ginkgo biloba
Glaucium flavumKNApSAcK Database
Glycine max
Gnetum montanumKNApSAcK Database
Gossypium
Grifola frondosa
Gymnocalycium comarapense-
Gymnocalycium monvillei-
Gymnocalycium netrelianum-
Gymnocalycium oenanthemum-
Gymnocalycium quehlianum-
Gymnocalycium riograndense-
Gymnocalycium stellatum-
Gymnocalycium striglianum-
Gymnocalycium uebelmannanum-
Gymnocalycium valnicekianum-
Hedysarum alpinum
Helianthus annuus L.
Helianthus tuberosus
Hermidium alipesKNApSAcK Database
Hibiscus sabbariffa
Hippophae rhamnoides
Hordeum vulgare
Hydrastis canadensisKNApSAcK Database
Hypecoum lactiflorumKNApSAcK Database
Hyssopus officinalis L.
Illicium verum
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea batatas
Islaya minor-
Juglans
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra L.
Juglans regia
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativa
Lagenaria siceraria
Lagopus muta
Lathyrus sativus
Laurus nobilis L.
Lens culinaris
Lentinus edodes
Lepidium sativum
Leporidae
Lepus timidus
Levisticum officinale
Lindera angustifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Linum usitatissimum
Litchi chinensis
Lophophora diffusaKNApSAcK Database
Lophophora friciiKNApSAcK Database
Lophophora jourdanianaKNApSAcK Database
Lophophora williamsiiKNApSAcK Database
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus
Lupinus albus
Lyallia kerguelensisKNApSAcK Database
Macadamia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Macleaya cordataKNApSAcK Database
Magnolia obovataKNApSAcK Database
Magnolia officinalisKNApSAcK Database
Mahonia aquifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Malpighia emarginata
Malus
Malus pumila
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Matricaria recutita
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Meconopsis cambricaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago sativa
Melanitta fusca
Meleagris gallopavo
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha spicata
Mentha x piperita
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Mohonia bealei-
Momordica charantia
Monodora junodiiKNApSAcK Database
Morchellaceae
Morella rubra
Moringa oleifera
Morus
Morus nigra
Musa acuminataKNApSAcK Database
Musa sapientumKNApSAcK Database
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Myrica
Myristica fragrans
Myrtillocactus geometrizansKNApSAcK Database
Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nephelium lappaceum
Numida meleagris
Nuphar lutea
Ocimum basilicum
Odocoileus
Oenothera biennis
Olea europaea
Opuntia
Opuntia acanthocarpaKNApSAcK Database
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia cylindricaKNApSAcK Database
Opuntia echinocarpaKNApSAcK Database
Opuntia ficus-indicaKNApSAcK Database
Opuntia imbricataKNApSAcK Database
Opuntia macrorhiza
Opuntia spinosiorKNApSAcK Database
Origanum majorana
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgare
Origanum X majoricum
Oryctolagus
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativa
Ovis aries
Pachyrhizus erosus
Panax ginseng
Pangium edule
Panicum miliaceum
Papaver bracteatumKNApSAcK Database
Papaver rhoeasKNApSAcK Database
Papaver somniferumKNApSAcK Database
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
Pediomelum esculentum
Pelecyphora aselliformisKNApSAcK Database
Pereskia corrugataKNApSAcK Database
Pereskia tamicanaKNApSAcK Database
Pereskiopsis scandensKNApSAcK Database
Perideridia oregana
Persea americanaKNApSAcK Database
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgarisKNApSAcK Database
Phasianidae
Phasianus colchicus
Phellodendron chinensisKNApSAcK Database
Phoenix dactylifera
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllostachys edulis
Physalis
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisum
Pinus
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum L.
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativumKNApSAcK Database
Plantago majorKNApSAcK Database
Pleurotus ostreatus
Polygonum alpinum
Portulaca grandifloraKNApSAcK Database
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapota
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus avium
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasus
Prunus domestica
Prunus dulcis
Prunus persica
Prunus persica var. nucipersica
Prunus persica var. persica
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajava
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Psychotria burucanaKNApSAcK Database
Psychotria ipecacuanhaKNApSAcK Database
Psychotria klugiiKNApSAcK Database
Pterocereus gaumeri-
Punica granatum
Pyrus communis
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus
Raphanus sativus
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rheum rhabarbarum
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Romneya coulteriKNApSAcK Database
Rosa
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilis
Rumex
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix pulchra
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia officinalis
Salvia rosmarinus
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra L.
Satureja hortensis L.
Satureja montana
Scorzonera hispanica
Secale cereale
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicum
Sesbania bispinosa
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium
Solanum esculentumKNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum L.KNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum
Solanum melanogenaKNApSAcK Database
Solanum melongena
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Solanum tuberosum L.KNApSAcK Database
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolor
Spinacia oleraceaKNApSAcK Database
Stenocereus beneckeiKNApSAcK Database
Stenocereus erucaKNApSAcK Database
Stenocereus stellatusKNApSAcK Database
Stenocereus treleaseiKNApSAcK Database
Stephania hernandifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Stephania tetrandraKNApSAcK Database
Struthio camelus
Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa domestica
Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tamarindus indica
Taraxacum officinale
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thalictrum flavumKNApSAcK Database
Thelesperma
Theobroma cacaoKNApSAcK Database
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.
Tinospora cordifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trichocereus pachanoiKNApSAcK Database
Trichocereus peruvianusKNApSAcK Database
Trichocereus spachianusKNApSAcK Database
Trichocereus strigosusKNApSAcK Database
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Triticum
Triticum aestivum
Triticum durum
Triticum spelta
Triticum turanicum
Typha angustifolia
Vaccinium
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Vanilla
Verbena officinalis
Viburnum edule
Vicia fabaKNApSAcK Database
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularis
Vigna mungo
Vigna radiata
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
Vitis
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis vinifera L.
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Xylopia parvifloraKNApSAcK Database
Zea mays L.
Zingiber officinale
Zizania
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosaKNApSAcK Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. Catecholamines and derivatives are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassBenzenediols
Direct ParentCatecholamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Catecholamine
  • Phenethylamine
  • 2-arylethylamine
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point128 °CNot Available
Boiling Point216.26 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility535 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.98Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.43 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP0.03ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.27ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.48 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.25 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.21 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000073
DrugBank IDDB00988
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012163
KNApSAcK IDC00001408
Chemspider ID661
KEGG Compound IDC03758
BioCyc IDDOPAMINE
BiGG ID42467
Wikipedia LinkDopamine
METLIN ID64
PubChem Compound681
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18243
Good Scents IDrw1696771
References
General References
  1. Raw I, Schmidt BJ, Merzel J: Catecholamines and congenital pain insensitivity. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1984;17(3-4):271-9. [PubMed:6085021 ]
  2. Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):800-11. Epub 2003 Mar 20. [PubMed:12649306 ]
  3. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [PubMed:12834252 ]
  4. Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Holmes C, Goldstein DS: Patterns of cerebrospinal fluid catechols support increased central noradrenergic responsiveness in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Sep 15;46(6):756-65. [PubMed:10494443 ]
  5. Mannelli M, Ianni L, Lazzeri C, Castellani W, Pupilli C, La Villa G, Barletta G, Serio M, Franchi F: In vivo evidence that endogenous dopamine modulates sympathetic activity in man. Hypertension. 1999 Sep;34(3):398-402. [PubMed:10489384 ]
  6. Jiang H, Betancourt L, Smith RG: Ghrelin amplifies dopamine signaling by cross talk involving formation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor/dopamine receptor subtype 1 heterodimers. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Aug;20(8):1772-85. Epub 2006 Apr 6. [PubMed:16601073 ]
  7. Brody AL, Mandelkern MA, Olmstead RE, Scheibal D, Hahn E, Shiraga S, Zamora-Paja E, Farahi J, Saxena S, London ED, McCracken JT: Gene variants of brain dopamine pathways and smoking-induced dopamine release in the ventral caudate/nucleus accumbens. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;63(7):808-16. [PubMed:16818870 ]
  8. Bauman A: Unilateral adrenal catecholamine excess. Pheochromocytoma or possible sporadic medullary hyperplasia. Arch Intern Med. 1982 Feb;142(2):377-8. [PubMed:7059264 ]
  9. King BM: The rise, fall, and resurrection of the ventromedial hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. Physiol Behav. 2006 Feb 28;87(2):221-44. Epub 2006 Jan 18. [PubMed:16412483 ]
  10. Cucchi ML, Frattini P, Santagostino G, Preda S, Orecchia G: Catecholamines increase in the urine of non-segmental vitiligo especially during its active phase. Pigment Cell Res. 2003 Apr;16(2):111-6. [PubMed:12622787 ]
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