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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-09 22:33:25 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001222
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameGlucaric acid
DescriptionGlucaric acid, also known as glucarate or D-saccharic acid, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. Glucuronic acid derivatives are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Glucaric acid is a sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups. D-glucaric acid is found in fruits, vegetables, and mammals. The highest concentrations of glucaric acid are found in grapefruits, apples, oranges, and cruciferous vegetables (PMID: 18772850 ). Glucaric acid is produced through the oxidation of glucose. Cytochrome P450 is thought to be responsible for the production of D-glucaric acid in vivo (PMID: 3779687 ). In mammals, D-glucaric acid and D-glucaro-l,4-lactone are also known end-products of the D-glucuronic acid pathway (PMID: 18772850 ). Glucaric is available as a dietary supplement in the form of calcium D-glucarate and has been studied for therapeutic purposes including cholesterol reduction and cancer chemotherapy (PMID: 9101079 ). D-Glucaric acid has a potential use as a building block for a number of polymers, including new nylons and hyperbranched polyesters. D-glucaric acid produced from D-glucose has been successfully utilized to produce a hydroxylated nylon.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
D-(+)-Saccharic acidChEBI
D-Glucosaccharic acidChEBI
D-Saccharic acidChEBI
L-Gularic acidChEBI
Saccharic acidChEBI
D-Glucaric acidKegg
GlucarateKegg
D-(+)-SaccharateGenerator
D-GlucosaccharateGenerator
D-SaccharateGenerator
L-GularateGenerator
SaccharateGenerator
D-GlucarateGenerator
(2R,3S,4S,5S)-2,3,4,5-TetrahydroxyhexanedioateHMDB
(2R,3S,4S,5S)-2,3,4,5-Tetrahydroxyhexanedioic acidHMDB
D-TetrahydroxyadipateHMDB
D-Tetrahydroxyadipic acidHMDB
DL-Glucaric acidHMDB
GKRHMDB
Glucosaccharic acidHMDB
Tetrahydroxyadipic acidHMDB
Acid, saccharicHMDB
Anhydrous calcium glucarateHMDB
Anhydrous calcium saccharateHMDB
Calcium saccharateHMDB
Glucarate, calciumHMDB
Levo gularic acidHMDB
Levo-gularic acidHMDB
Tetrahydrate, calcium saccharateHMDB
Calcium glucarateHMDB
Calcium glucarate, anhydrousHMDB
Calcium saccharate anhydrousHMDB
Calcium saccharate, anhydrousHMDB
D Glucaric acidHMDB
Saccharate tetrahydrate, calciumHMDB
Saccharate, calciumHMDB
Calcium saccharate tetrahydrateHMDB
D Saccharic acidHMDB
Glucarate, anhydrous calciumHMDB
L Gularic acidHMDB
Saccharate, anhydrous calciumHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H10O8
Average Mass210.1388 Da
Monoisotopic Mass210.03757 Da
IUPAC Name(2R,3S,4S,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxyhexanedioic acid
Traditional Namesaccharic acid
CAS Registry Number25525-21-7
SMILES
O[C@@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H](O)C(O)=O)[C@H](O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O8/c7-1(3(9)5(11)12)2(8)4(10)6(13)14/h1-4,7-10H,(H,11,12)(H,13,14)/t1-,2-,3-,4+/m0/s1
InChI KeyDSLZVSRJTYRBFB-LLEIAEIESA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, 5%_DMSO, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, 5%_DMSO, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentus
Actinidia chinensis
Agaricus bisporus
Agave
Allium ampeloprasum
Allium ascalonicum
Allium cepa
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium sativum
Allium schoenoprasum
Allium tuberosum
Aloysia triphylla
Amaranthus
Amelanchier alnifolia
Anacardium occidentale
Ananas comosus
Anas platyrhynchos
Anatidae
Anethum graveolens
Angelica keiskei
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Anser anser
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolens
Apium graveolens var. dulce
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arachis hypogaea
Arctium lappa
Armoracia rusticana
Artemisia dracunculus
Artemisia vulgaris
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asparagus officinalis
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Avena sativa L.
Averrhoa carambola
Basella alba
Benincasa hispida
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Bison bison
Borago officinalis
Bos taurus
Bos taurus X Bison bison
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica napus var. napus
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italica
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapa
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum alicastrum
Bubalus bubalis
Byrsonima crassifolia
Cajanus cajan
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibarius
Capparis spinosa
Capra aegagrus hircus
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuum
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Carica papaya L.
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya
Carya illinoinensis
Castanea
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Ceratonia siliqua
Cervidae
Cervus canadensis
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamerion angustifolium
Chenopodium album
Chenopodium quinoa
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybus
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Cirsium
Citrullus lanatus
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus maxima
Citrus paradisi
Citrus reticulata
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)
Cocos nucifera
Coffea arabica L.
Coffea canephora
Colocasia esculenta
Columba
Columbidae
Corchorus olitorius
Coriandrum sativum L.
Corylus
Corylus avellana
Crateva religiosa
Crocus sativus
Cucumis melo
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maxima
Cucurbita moschata
Cuminum cyminum
Curcuma longa
Cydonia oblonga
Cymbopogon citratus
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Daucus carota
Daucus carota ssp. sativus
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Diospyros
Diospyros kaki
Diospyros virginiana
Dromaius novaehollandiae
Durio zibethinus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elaeis
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomum
Empetrum nigrum
Equus caballus
Eragrostis tef
Eriobotrya japonica
Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Eutrema japonicum
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fagopyrum tataricum
Fagus
Feijoa sellowiana
Ficus carica
Flammulina velutipes
Foeniculum vulgare
Fragaria x ananassa
Gallus gallus
Garcinia mangostana
Gaylussacia baccata
Ginkgo biloba
Glycine max
Gossypium
Grifola frondosa
Hedysarum alpinum
Helianthus annuus L.
Helianthus tuberosus
Hibiscus sabbariffa
Hippophae rhamnoides
Hordeum vulgare
Hyssopus officinalis L.
Illicium verum
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea batatas
Juglans
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra L.
Juglans regia
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativa
Lagenaria siceraria
Lagopus muta
Lathyrus sativus
Laurus nobilis L.
Lens culinaris
Lentinus edodes
Lepidium sativum
Leporidae
Lepus timidus
Levisticum officinale
Linum usitatissimum
Litchi chinensis
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus
Lupinus albus
Macadamia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Malpighia emarginata
Malus
Malus pumila
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Matricaria recutita
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Medicago sativa
Melanitta fusca
Meleagris gallopavo
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha spicata
Mentha x piperita
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Momordica charantia
Morchellaceae
Morella rubra
Moringa oleifera
Morus
Morus nigra
Musa acuminata
Musa x paradisiaca
Myrica
Myristica fragrans
Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nephelium lappaceum
Numida meleagris
Nuphar lutea
Ocimum basilicum
Odocoileus
Oenothera biennis
Olea europaea
Opuntia
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia macrorhiza
Origanum majorana
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgare
Origanum X majoricum
Oryctolagus
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativa
Ovis aries
Pachyrhizus erosus
Panax ginseng
Pangium edule
Panicum miliaceum
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
Pediomelum esculentum
Perideridia oregana
Persea americana
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgaris
Phasianidae
Phasianus colchicus
Phoenix dactylifera
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllostachys edulis
Physalis
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisum
Pinus
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum L.
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativum
Pleurotus ostreatus
Polygonum alpinum
Portulaca oleracea
Pouteria sapota
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus avium
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasus
Prunus domestica
Prunus dulcis
Prunus persica
Prunus persica var. nucipersica
Prunus persica var. persica
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajava
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Punica granatum
Pyrus communis
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus
Raphanus sativus
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rheum rhabarbarum
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Rosa
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilis
Rumex
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix pulchra
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia officinalis
Salvia rosmarinus
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra L.
Satureja hortensis L.
Satureja montana
Scorzonera hispanica
Secale cereale
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicum
Sesbania bispinosa
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium
Solanum lycopersicum
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum
Solanum melongena
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosum
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolor
Spinacia oleracea
Struthio camelus
Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa domestica
Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tamarindus indica
Taraxacum officinale
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thelesperma
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Triticum
Triticum aestivum
Triticum durum
Triticum spelta
Triticum turanicum
Typha angustifolia
Vaccinium
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Vanilla
Verbena officinalis
Viburnum edule
Vicia faba
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularis
Vigna mungo
Vigna radiata
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
Vitis
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis vinifera L.
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Zea mays L.
Zingiber officinale
Zizania
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. Glucuronic acid derivatives are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentGlucuronic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Medium-chain hydroxy acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility912 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility63.1 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-3.1ChemAxon
logS-0.52ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area155.52 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity38.14 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.8 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000663
DrugBank IDDB03603
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022169
KNApSAcK IDC00052287
Chemspider ID30577
KEGG Compound IDC00818
BioCyc IDD-GLUCARATE
BiGG ID35926
Wikipedia LinkSaccharic_acid
METLIN ID5633
PubChem Compound33037
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16002
Good Scents IDrw1736771
References
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Matsushiro T, Suzuki N, Sato T, Maki T: Effects of diet on glucaric acid concentration in bile and the formation of calcium bilirubinate gallstones. Gastroenterology. 1977 Apr;72(4 Pt 1):630-3. [PubMed:320083 ]
  3. Roth B, Heimann G, Gladtke E: [Excretion of D-glucaric-acid in newborns with non-hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia after phenobarbital treatment (author's transl)]. Padiatr Padol. 1977;12(4):385-93. [PubMed:904946 ]
  4. Sorrell MF, Burnett DA, Tuma DJ, Barak AJ: Paradoxical urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid in acute viral hepatitis. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1976 Sep;20(3):365-8. [PubMed:954355 ]
  5. Levy G, Khanna NN, Soda DM, Tsuzuki O, Stern L: Pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in the human neonate: formation of acetaminophen glucuronide and sulfate in relation to plasma bilirubin concentration and D-glucaric acid excretion. Pediatrics. 1975 Jun;55(6):818-25. [PubMed:1134883 ]
  6. Traeger A, Horvath T, Rechenbach C, Javor T: Beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs and cytochrome P-450: the influence of propranolol treatment on caffeine, antipyrine, D-glucaric acid and indocyanine green elimination in patients with hepatic disorders. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1986;6(3):235-9. [PubMed:3744626 ]
  7. Herzberg M, Tenenbaum E, Fishel B, Wiener MH: D-Glucaric acid and gamma-glutamyltransferase as indices of hepatic enzyme induction in pregnancy. Clin Chem. 1977 Mar;23(3):596-8. [PubMed:13946 ]
  8. Zoltaszek R, Hanausek M, Kilianska ZM, Walaszek Z: [The biological role of D-glucaric acid and its derivatives: potential use in medicine]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2008 Sep 5;62:451-62. [PubMed:18772850 ]
  9. Marsh CA: Biosynthesis of D-glucaric acid in mammals: a free-radical mechanism? Carbohydr Res. 1986 Sep 15;153(1):119-31. doi: 10.1016/s0008-6215(00)90201-5. [PubMed:3779687 ]
  10. Walaszek Z, Szemraj J, Narog M, Adams AK, Kilgore J, Sherman U, Hanausek M: Metabolism, uptake, and excretion of a D-glucaric acid salt and its potential use in cancer prevention. Cancer Detect Prev. 1997;21(2):178-90. [PubMed:9101079 ]