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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 23:58:54 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001197
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameB-Carotene
DescriptionB-Carotene is a carotenoid that is a precursor of vitamin A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (porphyria, erythropoietic). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.) -- Pubchem; Carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment important for photosynthesis. It is responsible for the orange colour of the carrot and many other fruits and vegetables. It contributes to photosynthesis by transmitting the light energy it absorbs to chlorophyll. Chemically, carotene is a terpene. It is the dimer of retinol (vitamin A) and comes in two primary forms: Alpha- and beta-carotene. Gamma-, delta- and epsilon-carotene also exist. Carotene can be stored in the liver and converted to vitamin A as needed. Beta-carotene is an anti-oxidant and such can be useful for curbing the excess of damaging free radicals in the body. However, the usefulness of beta-carotene as a dietary supplement (i.E. Taken as a pill) is still subject to debate. Beta-carotene is fat-soluble, so a small amount of fat is needed to absorb it into the body. -- Wikipedia.
b CaroteneGenerator
Β caroteneGenerator
Carotene base 80SHMDB
Rovimix b-caroteneHMDB
Hermal brand OF betacaroteneMeSH, HMDB
Max-caroMeSH, HMDB
Merck brand OF betacaroteneMeSH, HMDB
Roche brand OF betacaroteneMeSH, HMDB
BellaCarotinMeSH, HMDB
Betacarotene roche brandMeSH, HMDB
Betacarotene solgar brandMeSH, HMDB
Marlyn brand OF betacaroteneMeSH, HMDB
Betacarotene hermal brandMeSH, HMDB
Max caroMeSH, HMDB
Solgar brand OF betacaroteneMeSH, HMDB
3m Brand OF betacaroteneMeSH, HMDB
Betacarotene 3m brandMeSH, HMDB
Betacarotene marlyn brandMeSH, HMDB
Betacarotene merck brandMeSH, HMDB
Carotene, betaMeSH, HMDB
VetoronMeSH, HMDB
beta CaroteneMeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC40H56
Average Mass536.8880 Da
Monoisotopic Mass536.43820 Da
IUPAC Name1,3,3-trimethyl-2-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-18-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)octadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaen-1-yl]cyclohex-1-ene
Traditional Nameβ-carotene
CAS Registry Number7235-40-7
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Acacia dealbataKNApSAcK Database
Actinidia chinensisKNApSAcK Database
Actinidia deliciosaKNApSAcK Database
Actinidia macrospermaKNApSAcK Database
Aloe arborescensKNApSAcK Database
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Asparagus officinalis L.KNApSAcK Database
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesKNApSAcK Database
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisKNApSAcK Database
Caesalpinia decapetalaKNApSAcK Database
Capsicum annuumKNApSAcK Database
Caragana arborescensKNApSAcK Database
Carica papayaKNApSAcK Database
Ceramium rubrumKNApSAcK Database
Citrus limonKNApSAcK Database
Citrus reticulataKNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabicaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea canephoraKNApSAcK Database
Corbicula japonicaKNApSAcK Database
Corbicula sandaiKNApSAcK Database
Cytisus scopariusKNApSAcK Database
Daucus carotaKNApSAcK Database
Dioscorea spp.KNApSAcK Database
Diospyros kakiKNApSAcK Database
Feijoa sellowianaKNApSAcK Database
Gardenia jasminoidesKNApSAcK Database
Glycine maxKNApSAcK Database
Hofmeisteria schaffneriKNApSAcK Database
Ipomoea batatasKNApSAcK Database
Laburnum anagyroidesKNApSAcK Database
Mangifera indicaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago arabicaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago cancellataKNApSAcK Database
Medicago carstiensisKNApSAcK Database
Medicago cretaceaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago daghestanicaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago falcataKNApSAcK Database
Medicago glomerataKNApSAcK Database
Medicago hybridaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago marinaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago papillosaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago pironaeKNApSAcK Database
Medicago prostrataKNApSAcK Database
Medicago rupestrisKNApSAcK Database
Medicago ruthenicaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago sativaKNApSAcK Database
Medicago saxatilisKNApSAcK Database
Medicago suffruticosaKNApSAcK Database
Momordica charantiaKNApSAcK Database
Momordica cochinchinensisKNApSAcK Database
Ononis spinosaKNApSAcK Database
Pandanus tectoriusKNApSAcK Database
Passiflora edulisKNApSAcK Database
Phaseolus vulgarisKNApSAcK Database
Pithecellobium dulceKNApSAcK Database
Psidium guajavaKNApSAcK Database
Pteleopsis hylodendronKNApSAcK Database
Raphanus sativusKNApSAcK Database
Rosa foetidaKNApSAcK Database
Rosa spp.KNApSAcK Database
Solanum tuberosumKNApSAcK Database
Spartium junceumKNApSAcK Database
Thermopsis alternifloraKNApSAcK Database
Triticum aestivumKNApSAcK Database
Ulex europaeusKNApSAcK Database
Ulex galliiKNApSAcK Database
Ulex spp.KNApSAcK Database
Zingiber officinaleKNApSAcK Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Agrobacterium aurantiacumKNApSAcK Database
Aureococcus anaphagefferensKNApSAcK Database
Clarias fuscusKNApSAcK Database
Corydoras melanistiusKNApSAcK Database
Erwinia herbicola strain Eho10KNApSAcK Database
Erwinia herbicola strain Eho13KNApSAcK Database
Erwinia uredovoraKNApSAcK Database
Euglena gracilisKNApSAcK Database
Flavobacterium sp. Strain R1534KNApSAcK Database
Liobagrus reiniiKNApSAcK Database
Malapterurus electricusKNApSAcK Database
Neurospora crassa YLOKNApSAcK Database
Pelteobagrus nudicepsKNApSAcK Database
Phaeodactylum tricornutumKNApSAcK Database
Plotosus lineatusKNApSAcK Database
Polysiphonia brodiaeiKNApSAcK Database
Polysiphonia urceolataKNApSAcK Database
Pseudobagrus aurantiacusKNApSAcK Database
Silurus asotusKNApSAcK Database
Silurus biwaensisKNApSAcK Database
Silurus lithophilusKNApSAcK Database
Silurus microdorsalisKNApSAcK Database
Streptomyces griseusKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carotenes. These are a type of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing eight consecutive isoprene units. They are characterized by the presence of two end-groups (mostly cyclohexene rings, but also cyclopentene rings or acyclic groups) linked by a long branched alkyl chain. Carotenes belonging form a subgroup of the carotenoids family.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTetraterpenoids
Direct ParentCarotenes
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point183 °CNot Available
Boiling Point654.00 to 657.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility0.6 mg/mLNot Available
LogP14.764 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.00039 g/LALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity191.61 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability72.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
External Links
DrugBank IDDB06755
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB014613
KNApSAcK IDC00000919
Chemspider ID4444129
KEGG Compound IDC02094
BioCyc IDCPD1F-129
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBeta_Carotene
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5280489
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17579
Good Scents IDrw1105911
General References
  1. Rushin WG, Catignani GL, Schwartz SJ: Determination of beta-carotene and its cis isomers in serum. Clin Chem. 1990 Nov;36(11):1986-9. [PubMed:2242585 ]
  2. Vahlquist A, Lee JB, Michaelsson G, Rollman O: Vitamin A in human skin: II Concentrations of carotene, retinol and dehydroretinol in various components of normal skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1982 Aug;79(2):94-7. [PubMed:7097042 ]
  3. Bacic-Vrca V, Skreb F, Cepelak I, Mayer L, Kusic Z, Petres B: The effect of antioxidant supplementation on superoxide dismutase activity, Cu and Zn levels, and total antioxidant status in erythrocytes of patients with Graves' disease. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(4):383-8. [PubMed:15899653 ]
  4. Wu K, Erdman JW Jr, Schwartz SJ, Platz EA, Leitzmann M, Clinton SK, DeGroff V, Willett WC, Giovannucci E: Plasma and dietary carotenoids, and the risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Feb;13(2):260-9. [PubMed:14973107 ]
  5. Huang C, Tang YL, Chen CY, Chen ML, Chu CH, Hseu CT: The bioavailability of beta-carotene in stir- or deep-fried vegetables in men determined by measuring the serum response to a single ingestion. J Nutr. 2000 Mar;130(3):534-40. [PubMed:10702581 ]
  6. Gerber M: Qualitative methods to evaluate Mediterranean diet in adults. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Feb;9(1A):147-51. [PubMed:16512962 ]
  7. El-Sohemy A, Baylin A, Kabagambe E, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Campos H: Individual carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma as biomarkers of dietary intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):172-9. [PubMed:12081831 ]
  8. Gollnick HP, Siebenwirth C: Beta-carotene plasma levels and content in oral mucosal epithelium is skin type associated. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):360-6. [PubMed:12239432 ]
  9. Lee J, Jiang S, Levine N, Watson RR: Carotenoid supplementation reduces erythema in human skin after simulated solar radiation exposure. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 2000 Feb;223(2):170-4. [PubMed:10654620 ]
  10. Stahl W, Schwarz W, Sundquist AR, Sies H: cis-trans isomers of lycopene and beta-carotene in human serum and tissues. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 Apr;294(1):173-7. [PubMed:1550343 ]
  11. Stahl W, Heinrich U, Jungmann H, Sies H, Tronnier H: Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Mar;71(3):795-8. [PubMed:10702175 ]
  12. Chanarat N, Chanarat P, Viratsethasin K, Suttajit M, Chiewsilp D: Biochemical and hematological manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001 Sep;32(3):500-3. [PubMed:11944706 ]
  13. Heinrich U, Gartner C, Wiebusch M, Eichler O, Sies H, Tronnier H, Stahl W: Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):98-101. [PubMed:12514275 ]
  14. Poor CL, Bierer TL, Merchen NR, Fahey GC Jr, Murphy MR, Erdman JW Jr: Evaluation of the preruminant calf as a model for the study of human carotenoid metabolism. J Nutr. 1992 Feb;122(2):262-8. [PubMed:1732467 ]
  15. Lakshman MR: Alpha and omega of carotenoid cleavage. J Nutr. 2004 Jan;134(1):241S-245S. [PubMed:14704327 ]
  16. Kirsh VA, Hayes RB, Mayne ST, Chatterjee N, Subar AF, Dixon LB, Albanes D, Andriole GL, Urban DA, Peters U: Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Feb 15;98(4):245-54. [PubMed:16478743 ]
  17. McArdle F, Rhodes LE, Parslew RA, Close GL, Jack CI, Friedmann PS, Jackson MJ: Effects of oral vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation on ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in human skin. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5):1270-5. [PubMed:15531675 ]
  18. Metnitz GH, Fischer M, Bartens C, Steltzer H, Lang T, Druml W: Impact of acute renal failure on antioxidant status in multiple organ failure. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2000 Mar;44(3):236-40. [PubMed:10714834 ]
  19. Zhou JF, Chen P, Yang JL, Zhu YG, Peng CH, Wu YL: Oxidative stress before and after operation in patients with chronic cholecystitis containing gallstone. Biomed Environ Sci. 2000 Dec;13(4):254-62. [PubMed:11351858 ]
  20. Dimenstein R, Trugo NM, Donangelo CM, Trugo LC, Anastacio AS: Effect of subadequate maternal vitamin-A status on placental transfer of retinol and beta-carotene to the human fetus. Biol Neonate. 1996;69(4):230-4. [PubMed:8724650 ]