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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-12-24 16:04:36 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001193
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameCytidine
DescriptionCytidine is a nucleoside that is composed of the base cytosine linked to the five-carbon sugar D-ribose. Cytidine is a pyrimidine that besides being incorporated into nucleic acids, can serve as a substrate for the salvage pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. It is a precursor of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) needed in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) biosynthetic pathways. These variations probably reflect the species differences in cytidine deaminase, the enzyme that converts cytidine to uridine in the body. The transport of cytidine into the brain's extracellular fluid, and then into neurons and glia, are essential prerequisites for cytidine to be utilized in the brain. An efficient mechanism mediating the brain uptake of circulating cytidine has not yet been demonstrated. The biosynthesis of PC, the most abundant phosphatide in the brain, via the Kennedy pathway requires phosphocholine and cytidine triphosphate (CTP), a cytidine nucleotide involved in the rate-limiting step. The enzyme that converts CTP to endogenous CDP-choline (CTP:Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase) is unsaturated at physiological brain CTP levels. APOBEC is a family of enzymes that has been discovered with the ability to deaminate cytidines on RNA or DNA. The human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G protein (APOBEC3G, or hA3G), provides cells with an intracellular antiretroviral activity that is associated with the hypermutation of viral DNA through cytidine deamination. Indeed, hA3G belongs to a family of vertebrate proteins that contains one or two copies of a signature sequence motif unique to cytidine deaminases (CTDAs) (PMID: 16769123 , 15780864 , 16720547 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-beta-D-RibofuranosylcytosineChEBI
1beta-D-RibofuranosylcytosineChEBI
4-AMINO-1-BETA-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneChEBI
4-Amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrimidin-2(1H)-oneChEBI
4-Amino-1beta-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneChEBI
CydChEBI
CytidinChEBI
Cytosine ribosideChEBI
Cytosine-1beta-D-ribofuranosideChEBI
ZytidinChEBI
PosilentKegg
1-b-D-RibofuranosylcytosineGenerator
1-Β-D-ribofuranosylcytosineGenerator
1b-D-RibofuranosylcytosineGenerator
1Β-D-ribofuranosylcytosineGenerator
4-AMINO-1-b-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneGenerator
4-AMINO-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneGenerator
4-Amino-1-b-D-ribofuranosylpyrimidin-2(1H)-oneGenerator
4-Amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosylpyrimidin-2(1H)-oneGenerator
4-Amino-1b-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneGenerator
4-Amino-1β-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneGenerator
Cytosine-1b-D-ribofuranosideGenerator
Cytosine-1β-D-ribofuranosideGenerator
1-(b-D-Ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazineHMDB
1-(b-delta-Ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazineHMDB
1-b-D-Ribosyl-cytosineHMDB
1-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-cytosineHMDB
1-beta-delta-Ribofuranosyl-cytosineHMDB
1-beta-delta-RibofuranosylcytosineHMDB
1-beta-delta-Ribosyl-cytosineHMDB
1beta-delta-RibofuranosylcytosineHMDB
1beta-RibofuranosylcytosineHMDB
4-Amino-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinoneHMDB
Cytosine-1b-delta-ribofuranosideHMDB
Cytosine-1beta-delta-ribofuranosideHMDB
Cytosine ribonucleosideHMDB
Ribonucleoside, cytosineHMDB
Riboside, cytosineHMDB
1-(beta-D-Ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazineHMDB
1-(Β-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H13N3O5
Average Mass243.2166 Da
Monoisotopic Mass243.08552 Da
IUPAC Name4-amino-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one
Traditional Namecytidine
CAS Registry Number65-46-3
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)N(C=C1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H13N3O5/c10-5-1-2-12(9(16)11-5)8-7(15)6(14)4(3-13)17-8/h1-2,4,6-8,13-15H,3H2,(H2,10,11,16)/t4-,6-,7-,8-/m1/s1
InChI KeyUHDGCWIWMRVCDJ-XVFCMESISA-N
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2021-12-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2021-12-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Not Available
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaLOTUS Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumKNApSAcK Database
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Castanopsis fissaLOTUS Database
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Fritillaria cirrhosaKNApSAcK Database
Fritillaria thunbergiiLOTUS Database
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Morinda citrifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
OdocoileusFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
ThelespermaFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Xerocomus nigromaculatusLOTUS Database
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidine nucleosides. Pyrimidine nucleosides are compounds comprising a pyrimidine base attached to a ribosyl or deoxyribosyl moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPyrimidine nucleosides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPyrimidine nucleosides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrimidine nucleoside
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydropyrimidine
  • Monosaccharide
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point230.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point545.68 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility175700 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
LogP-2.51Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility43.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-0.74ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.55ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.062ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area128.61 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity54.54 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000089
DrugBank IDDB02097
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021809
KNApSAcK IDC00042440
Chemspider ID5940
KEGG Compound IDC00475
BioCyc IDCYTIDINE
BiGG ID35089
Wikipedia LinkCytidine
METLIN ID3376
PubChem Compound6175
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17562
Good Scents IDrw1233441
References
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  3. Lee SH, Jung BH, Kim SY, Chung BC: A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of nucleosides in human urine using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with direct urine injection. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(9):973-7. [PubMed:15116424 ]
  4. Mahieux R, Suspene R, Delebecque F, Henry M, Schwartz O, Wain-Hobson S, Vartanian JP: Extensive editing of a small fraction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 genomes by four APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. J Gen Virol. 2005 Sep;86(Pt 9):2489-94. [PubMed:16099907 ]
  5. Schrofelbauer B, Yu Q, Zeitlin SG, Landau NR: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces the degradation of the UNG and SMUG uracil-DNA glycosylases. J Virol. 2005 Sep;79(17):10978-87. [PubMed:16103149 ]
  6. Min IM, Selsing E: Antibody class switch recombination: roles for switch sequences and mismatch repair proteins. Adv Immunol. 2005;87:297-328. [PubMed:16102577 ]
  7. Zhong SQ, Sun LJ, Yan YZ, Sun YQ, Zhong YY: Effect of Xuesaitong soft capsule on hemorrheology and in auxiliarily treating patients with acute cerebral infarction. Chin J Integr Med. 2005 Jun;11(2):128-31. [PubMed:16150200 ]
  8. Barbour JD, Grant RM: The role of viral fitness in HIV pathogenesis. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2005 Feb;2(1):29-34. [PubMed:16091246 ]
  9. Cansev M: Uridine and cytidine in the brain: their transport and utilization. Brain Res Rev. 2006 Sep;52(2):389-97. [PubMed:16769123 ]
  10. Huthoff H, Malim MH: Cytidine deamination and resistance to retroviral infection: towards a structural understanding of the APOBEC proteins. Virology. 2005 Apr 10;334(2):147-53. [PubMed:15780864 ]
  11. Navaratnam N, Sarwar R: An overview of cytidine deaminases. Int J Hematol. 2006 Apr;83(3):195-200. [PubMed:16720547 ]
  12. Reina J: [Plitidepsin, an inhibitor of the cell elongation factor eEF1a, and molnupiravir an analogue of the ribonucleoside cytidine, two new chemical compounds with intense activity against SARS-CoV-2]. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2021 Oct;34(5):402-407. doi: 10.37201/req/042.2021. Epub 2021 Apr 27. [PubMed:33902254 ]