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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-07-01 14:27:34 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001167
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameThiamine
DescriptionThiamine, also known as aneurin or vitamin B1, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiamines. Thiamines are compounds containing a thiamine moiety, which is structurally characterized by a 3-[(4-Amino-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl backbone. Thiamine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. Thiamine biosynthesis occurs in bacteria, some protozoans, plants, and fungi. Thiamine is a vitamin and an essential nutrient meaning the body cannot synthesize it, and it must be obtained from the diet. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. Thiamine decomposes if heated. Thiamine was first discovered in 1897 by Umetaro Suzuki in Japan when researching how rice bran cured patients of Beriberi. Thiamine was the first B vitamin to be isolated in 1926 and was first made in 1936. Thiamine plays a key role in intracellular glucose metabolism and it is thought that thiamine inhibits the effect of glucose and insulin on arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Thiamine plays an important role in helping the body convert carbohydrates and fat into energy. It is essential for normal growth and development and helps to maintain proper functioning of the heart and the nervous and digestive systems. Thiamine cannot be stored in the body; however, once absorbed, the vitamin is concentrated in muscle tissue. Thiamine has antioxidant, erythropoietic, cognition-and mood-modulatory, antiatherosclerotic, putative ergogenic, and detoxification activities. Natural derivatives of thiamine, such as thiamine monophosphate (ThMP), thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), also sometimes called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), act as coenzymes in addition to performing unique biological functions. Thiamine deficiency can lead to beriberi, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, optic neuropathy, Leigh's disease, African seasonal ataxia (or Nigerian seasonal ataxia), and central pontine myelinolysis. In Western countries, thiamine deficiency is seen mainly in chronic alcoholism. Thiamine supplements or thiamine therapy can be used for the treatment of a number of disorders including thiamine and niacin deficiency states, Korsakov's alcoholic psychosis, Wernicke-Korsakov syndrome, delirium, and peripheral neuritis. In humans, thiamine is involved in the metabolic disorder called 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Outside of the human body, Thiamine is found in high quantities in whole grains, legumes, pork, fruits, and yeast and fish. Grain processing removes much of the thiamine content in grains, so in many countries cereals and flours are enriched with thiamine.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-(4-AMINO-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-5-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-4-methyl-thiazol-3-iumChEBI
AneurinChEBI
Antiberiberi factorChEBI
ThiaminChEBI
Thiamine cationChEBI
Thiamine ionChEBI
Thiamine(1+) ionChEBI
ThiaminiumChEBI
Vitamin b1ChEBI
Apate dropsHMDB
BeatineHMDB
BedomeHMDB
BegiolanHMDB
BenervaHMDB
BequinHMDB
BerinHMDB
Betalin SHMDB
BetaxinHMDB
BethiazineHMDB
BeuionHMDB
BevitexHMDB
BevitineHMDB
BewonHMDB
BiamineHMDB
BithiaminHMDB
BiunoHMDB
BivatinHMDB
BivitaHMDB
Cernevit-12HMDB
ClotiaminaHMDB
EskapenHMDB
EskaphenHMDB
HybeeHMDB
Lixa-betaHMDB
MetabolinHMDB
SlowtenHMDB
THDHMDB
ThiadoxineHMDB
ThiaminalHMDB
ThiamolHMDB
ThiavitHMDB
TiamidonHMDB
TiaminalHMDB
TrophiteHMDB
Vetalin SHMDB
VIBHMDB
VinothiamHMDB
VitaneuronHMDB
Mononitrate, thiamineHMDB
Thiamine mononitrateHMDB
Vitamin b 1HMDB
Chemical FormulaC12H17N4OS
Average Mass265.3550 Da
Monoisotopic Mass265.11231 Da
IUPAC Name3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-3-ium
Traditional Namethiamine
CAS Registry Number59-43-8
SMILES
CC1=C(CCO)SC=[N+]1CC1=CN=C(C)N=C1N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H17N4OS/c1-8-11(3-4-17)18-7-16(8)6-10-5-14-9(2)15-12(10)13/h5,7,17H,3-4,6H2,1-2H3,(H2,13,14,15)/q+1
InChI KeyJZRWCGZRTZMZEH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-08-03View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Abramis bramaFooDB
AcipenserFooDB
AcipenseridaeFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Alhagi persarumLOTUS Database
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Alosa sapidissimaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anarhichas lupusFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
AnguillaFooDB
AnguilliformesFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Anoplopoma fimbriaFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Aplodinotus grunniensFooDB
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Archosargus probatocephalusFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemia salinaLOTUS Database
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
AstacideaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Belone beloneFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
BivalviaFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
BrachyuraFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Brosme brosmeFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
BuccinidaeFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Callinectes sapidusFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cancer magisterFooDB
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
CarideaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Catostomus commersoniiFooDB
Celosia cristadaKNApSAcK Database
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chanos chanosFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chionoecetes opilioFooDB
Chondrus crispusFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
CichlidaeFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Clinocardium nuttalliiFooDB
Clupea harengus harengusFooDB
Clupea pallasiiFooDB
ClupeinaeFooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
CoregonusFooDB
Coregonus artediFooDB
Coregonus nasusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crassostrea gigasFooDB
Crassostrea virginicaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
CyclopteridaeFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Cyprinus carpioFooDB
Dallia pectoralisFooDB
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
EngraulidaeFooDB
Engraulis encrasicolusFooDB
Enteroctopus dofleiniFooDB
EpinephelusFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Esox luciusFooDB
EucheumaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
GadiformesFooDB
GadusFooDB
Gadus macrocephalusFooDB
Gadus morhuaFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
GastropodaFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
HippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus hippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus stenolepisFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesKNApSAcK Database
Homarus americanusFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hoplostethus atlanticusFooDB
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Ictalurus punctatusFooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Katsuwonus pelamisFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
    • DG. Criossby. The Organic Constituents of Food. I. Lettuce. J. Food Sci. 1963, 28(3):347-355
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
LaminariaFooDB
Leiostomus xanthurusFooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
Lepomis gibbosusFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Limanda limandaFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Lophius piscatoriusFooDB
Lopholatilus chamaeleonticepsFooDB
Lota lotaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
LutjanidaeFooDB
Lycium chinenseKNApSAcK Database
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mangifera indicaKNApSAcK Database
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisLOTUS Database
Medicago sativaKNApSAcK Database
Melanogrammus aeglefinusFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Merlangius merlangusFooDB
Micromesistius poutassouFooDB
Micropogonias undulatusFooDB
Microstomus kittFooDB
Molva molvaFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morone saxatilisFooDB
Morus albaKNApSAcK Database
Mugil cephalusFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyoxocephalusFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
MytilidaeFooDB
Mytilus edulisFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
NephropidaeFooDB
Nephrops norvegicusFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Octopus vulgarisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
OncorhynchusFooDB
Oncorhynchus gorbuschaFooDB
Oncorhynchus ketaFooDB
Oncorhynchus kisutchFooDB
Oncorhynchus mykissFooDB
Oncorhynchus nerkaFooDB
Oncorhynchus tshawytschaFooDB
Ophiocordyceps sinensisFungi
Ophiodon elongatusFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
OsmeridaeFooDB
Osmerus mordaxFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
PalinuridaeFooDB
Panax ginsengKNApSAcK Database
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
PapaverFooDB
Paralithodes camtschaticusFooDB
Parastichopus californicusFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
PectinidaeFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Peprilus triacanthusFooDB
PerciformesFooDB
PercoideiFooDB
Perilla frutescens var.argutaKNApSAcK Database
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Phragmites communisKNApSAcK Database
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
PleuronectidaeFooDB
PleuronectiformesFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
PollachiusFooDB
Pollachius pollachiusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Pomatomus saltatrixFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
RanidaeFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Reinhardtius hippoglossoidesFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Saccharina japonicaFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salmo salarFooDB
Salmo trutta forma truttaFooDB
Salmonella entericaLOTUS Database
SalmonidaeFooDB
SalvelinusFooDB
Salvelinus namaycushFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Sander luciopercaFooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Scomberomorus cavallaFooDB
Scomberomorus maculatusFooDB
ScombridaeFooDB
Scophthalmus maximusFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
SebastesFooDB
Sebastes alutusFooDB
Sebastes viviparusFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
SepiidaeFooDB
Seriola lalandiFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
SiluriformesFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
SoleidaeFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
SpirulinaFooDB
SqualiformesFooDB
Squalus acanthiasFooDB
Stenodus leucichthysFooDB
Stenotomus chrysopsFooDB
StrombidaeFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Synechococcus elongatusLOTUS Database
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiKNApSAcK Database
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
TeuthidaFooDB
Theobroma cacaoLOTUS Database
ThunnusFooDB
Thunnus albacaresFooDB
Thunnus thynnusFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Trachinotus carolinusFooDB
Trachurus symmetricusFooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumKNApSAcK Database
Trisopterus esmarkiiFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
Undaria pinnatifidaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
Virola surinamensisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Xiphias gladiusFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Ziziphus jujubaKNApSAcK Database
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Zoarces americanusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Cordyceps sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiamines. Thiamines are compounds containing a thiamine moiety, which is structurally characterized by a 3-[(4-Amino-2-methyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-thiazol-5-yl backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentThiamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Thiamine
  • 4,5-disubstituted 1,3-thiazole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Azole
  • Thiazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Amine
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point248 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility500 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.015 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.1ALOGPS
logP-3.1ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.91 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity73.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability28.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000235
DrugBank IDDB00152
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008424
KNApSAcK IDC00000775
Chemspider ID1098
KEGG Compound IDC00378
BioCyc IDTHIAMINE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkThiamine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound1130
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18385
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
General References
  1. Dutta B, Huang W, Molero M, Kekuda R, Leibach FH, Devoe LD, Ganapathy V, Prasad PD: Cloning of the human thiamine transporter, a member of the folate transporter family. J Biol Chem. 1999 Nov 5;274(45):31925-9. [PubMed:10542220 ]
  2. Bellazzi R, Guglielmann R, Ironi L, Patrini C: A hybrid input-output approach to model metabolic systems: an application to intracellular thiamine kinetics. J Biomed Inform. 2001 Aug;34(4):221-48. [PubMed:11977806 ]
  3. Pietrzak I, Baczyk K: Comparison of the thiamine level in blood and erythrocyte transketolase activity in hemodialyzed and nondialyzed patients during recombinant human erythropoietin therapy. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1997;23(3-6):277-82. [PubMed:9387133 ]
  4. Singleton CK, Martin PR: Molecular mechanisms of thiamine utilization. Curr Mol Med. 2001 May;1(2):197-207. [PubMed:11899071 ]
  5. Sato Y, Nakagawa M, Higuchi I, Osame M, Naito E, Oizumi K: Mitochondrial myopathy and familial thiamine deficiency. Muscle Nerve. 2000 Jul;23(7):1069-75. [PubMed:10883001 ]
  6. Mastrogiacoma F, Bettendorff L, Grisar T, Kish SJ: Brain thiamine, its phosphate esters, and its metabolizing enzymes in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 1996 May;39(5):585-91. [PubMed:8619543 ]
  7. Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Hernanz A, Fernandez-Vivancos E, Medina S, de Bustos F, Gomez-Escalonilla C, Sayed Y: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of thiamine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2002 Jul;109(7-8):1035-44. [PubMed:12111441 ]
  8. Pietrzak I, Baczyk K, Kubiak W: Recombinant human erythropoietin administration improves thiamine content in blood and erythrocytes transketolase activity in pre-dialyzed patients. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 1994;48 Suppl 3:29-37. [PubMed:8192530 ]
  9. Valerio G, Franzese A, Poggi V, Patrini C, Laforenza U, Tenore A: Lipophilic thiamine treatment in long-standing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Acta Diabetol. 1999 Jun;36(1-2):73-6. [PubMed:10436256 ]
  10. Herve C, Beyne P, Delacoux E: Determination of thiamine and its phosphate esters in human erythrocytes by high-performance liquid chromatography with isocratic elution. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994 Mar 4;653(2):217-20. [PubMed:8205249 ]
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