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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2024-04-19 09:49:25 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001161
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameL-Tryptophan
DescriptionTryptophan (Trp) or L-tryptophan is an alpha-amino acid. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. L-tryptophan is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.E., The amino acids used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Tryptophan is found in all organisms ranging from bacteria to plants to animals. It is classified as a non-polar, uncharged (at physiological pH) aromatic amino acid. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning the body cannot synthesize it, and it must be obtained from the diet. The requirement for tryptophan and protein decreases with age. The minimum daily requirement for adults is 3 mg/kg/day or about 200 mg a day. There is 400 mg of tryptophan in a cup of wheat germ. A cup of low-fat cottage cheese contains 300 mg of tryptophan and chicken and turkey contain up to 600 mg of tryptophan per pound (http://Www.Dcnutrition.Com). Tryptophan is particularly plentiful in chocolate, oats, dried dates, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, red meat, eggs, fish, poultry, sesame, chickpeas, almonds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, buckwheat, spirulina, and peanuts. Tryptophan is the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals, which regulates sleep and wakefulness. Serotonin is a brain neurotransmitter, platelet clotting factor, and neurohormone found in organs throughout the body. Metabolism of tryptophan into serotonin requires nutrients such as vitamin B6, niacin, and glutathione. Niacin (also known as vitamin B3) is an important metabolite of tryptophan. It is synthesized via kynurenine and quinolinic acids, which are products of tryptophan degradation. There are a number of conditions or diseases that are characterized by tryptophan deficiencies. For instance, fructose malabsorption causes improper absorption of tryptophan in the intestine, which reduces levels of tryptophan in the blood and leads to depression. High corn diets or other tryptophan-deficient diets can cause pellagra, which is a niacin-tryptophan deficiency disease with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. Hartnup's disease is a disorder in which tryptophan and other amino acids are not absorbed properly. Symptoms of Hartnup's disease include skin rashes, difficulty coordinating movements (cerebellar ataxia), and psychiatric symptoms such as depression or psychosis. Tryptophan supplements may be useful for treating Hartnup's disease. Assessment of tryptophan deficiency is done through studying excretion of tryptophan metabolites in the urine or blood. Blood may be the most sensitive test because the amino acid tryptophan is transported in a unique way. Increased urination of tryptophan breakdown products (such as kynurenine) correlates with increased tryptophan degradation, which occurs with oral contraception, depression, mental retardation, hypertension, and anxiety states. Tryptophan plays a role in "feast-induced" drowsiness. Ingestion of a meal rich in carbohydrates triggers the release of insulin. Insulin, in turn, stimulates the uptake of large neutral branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) into muscle, increasing the ratio of tryptophan to BCAA in the bloodstream. The increased tryptophan ratio reduces competition at the large neutral amino acid transporter (which transports both BCAAs and tryptophan), resulting in greater uptake of tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Once in the CSF, tryptophan is converted into serotonin and the resulting serotonin is further metabolized into melatonin by the pineal gland, which promotes sleep. Because tryptophan is converted into 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) which is then converted into the neurotransmitter serotonin, it has been proposed that consumption of tryptophan or 5-HTP may improve depression symptoms by increasing the level of serotonin in the brain. Tryptophan is sold over the counter in the United States (after being banned to varying extents between 1989 and 2005) and the United Kingdom as a dietary supplement for use as an antidepressant, anxiolytic, and sleep aid. It is also marketed as a prescription drug in some European countries for the treatment of major depression. There is evidence that blood tryptophan levels are unlikely to be altered by changing the diet, but consuming purified tryptophan increases the serotonin level in the brain, whereas eating foods containing tryptophan does not. This is because the transport system that brings tryptophan across the blood–brain barrier also transports other amino acids which are contained in protein food sources. Under certain situations, tryptophan can be a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin. A neurotoxin is a compound that causes damage to the brain and nerve tissues. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of tryptophan can be found in glutaric aciduria type I (glutaric acidemia type I or GA1). GA1 is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to completely break down the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan due to a deficiency of mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC, GCDH). Excessive levels of their intermediate breakdown products (e.G. Glutaric acid, glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid) can accumulate and cause damage to the brain (and also other organs), but particularly the basal ganglia. Babies with glutaric acidemia type I are often born with unusually large heads (macrocephaly). Other symptoms include spasticity (increased muscle tone/stiffness) and dystonia (involuntary muscle contractions resulting in abnormal movement or posture), but many affected individuals are asymptomatic. High levels of tryptophan have also been implicated in eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), an incurable and sometimes fatal flu-like neurological condition linked to the ingestion of large amounts of L-tryptophan. The risk of developing EMS increases with larger doses of tryptophan and increasing age. Some research suggests that certain genetic polymorphisms may be related to the development of EMS. The presence of eosinophilia is a core feature of EMS, along with unusually severe myalgia (muscle pain). It is thought that both tryptophan and certain unidentified tryptophan contaminants may contribute to EMS (PMID: 1763543 ). It has also been suggested that excessive tryptophan or elevation of its metabolites could play a role in amplifying some of the pathological features of EMS (PMID: 10721094 ). This pathological damage is further augmented by metabolites of the kynurenine pathway (a tryptophan degradation pathway).
(2S)-2-Amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha-Amino-1H-indole-3-propanoic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-(3-indolyl)-propionic acidChEBI
(S)-a-Amino-1H-indole-3-propanoic acidGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-1H-indole-3-propanoic acidGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-b-(3-indolyl)-propionic acidGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-β-(3-indolyl)-propionic acidGenerator
(S)-2-Amino-3-(3-indolyl)propionic acidHMDB
(S)-a-Amino-b-indolepropionic acidHMDB
(S)-a-Aminoindole-3-propionic acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-indolepropionic acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-Aminoindole-3-propionic acidHMDB
2-Amino-3-indolylpropanoic acidHMDB
Alpha'-amino-3-indolepropionic acidHMDB
alpha-Aminoindole-3-propionic acidHMDB
L-alpha-Amino-3-indolepropionic acidHMDB
L-alpha-Aminoindole-3-propionic acidHMDB
L TryptophanHMDB
Merck brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Niddapharm brand OF tryptophanHMDB
ICN brand OF tryptophanHMDB
PMS TryptophanHMDB
Ratiopharm brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Esparma brand OF tryptophanHMDB
L Tryptophan ratiopharmHMDB
Tryptophan metabolism alterationsHMDB
Ardeypharm brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Kalma brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Pharmascience brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Upsher-smith brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Ratio tryptophanHMDB
Chemical FormulaC11H12N2O2
Average Mass204.2252 Da
Monoisotopic Mass204.08988 Da
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid
Traditional NameL-tryptophan
CAS Registry Number73-22-3
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-02-17View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-02-17View Spectrum
HMBC NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)yupingfu424@163.comNot AvailableNot Available2023-07-17View Spectrum
HSQC NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)yupingfu424@163.comNot AvailableNot Available2023-07-17View Spectrum
COSY NMR[1H, 1H] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)yupingfu424@163.comNot AvailableNot Available2023-07-17View Spectrum
1D NMR[1H, ] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)yupingfu424@163.comNot AvailableNot Available2023-07-17View Spectrum
1D NMR[13C, ] NMR Spectrum (2D, 151 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)yupingfu424@163.comNot AvailableNot Available2023-07-17View Spectrum
1D NMR[1H, ] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)yupingfu424@163.comNot AvailableNot Available2023-07-17View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)varshavi.d26@gmail.comNot AvailableNot Available2021-08-07View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Abramis bramaFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium chinenseLOTUS Database
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Alosa sapidissimaFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
Amaranthus spinosusLOTUS Database
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anarhichas lupusFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anoplopoma fimbriaFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Antirrhinum majusKNApSAcK Database
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Aplodinotus grunniensFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Archosargus probatocephalusFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemia salinaLOTUS Database
Artemisia absinthiumLOTUS Database
Artemisia armeniacaLOTUS Database
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Ascaris lumbricoidesLOTUS Database
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Aspergillus clavatusFungi
Aspergillus fischeriFungi
Aspergillus fumigatusFungi
Atractylodes lanceaLOTUS Database
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Bombyx moriLOTUS Database
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus ssp. rapiferaPlant
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Brosme brosmeFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Bupleurum chinenseLOTUS Database
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Callinectes sapidusFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cancer magisterFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Catostomus commersoniiFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chanos chanosFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chionoecetes opilioFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cliona celataLOTUS Database
Clupea harengus harengusFooDB
Clupea pallasiiFooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coregonus artediFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crassostrea gigasFooDB
Crassostrea virginicaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Ctenodiscus crispatusLOTUS Database
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma domesticaKNApSAcK Database
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Cynomorium songaricumLOTUS Database
Cyprinus carpioFooDB
Daphnia pulexLOTUS Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Davallia mariesiiLOTUS Database
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Engraulis encrasicolusFooDB
Equisetum debileKNApSAcK Database
Equisetum ramosissimumLOTUS Database
Equisetum ramosissimum subsp. debilePlant
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Ervatamia coronariaLOTUS Database
Esox luciusFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria chiloensisLOTUS Database
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Gadus macrocephalusFooDB
Gadus morhuaFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Geranium pratenseLOTUS Database
Geranium pratense subsp.finitimum (Woronow) KnuthKNApSAcK Database
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glehnia littoralisLOTUS Database
Glycine maxFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippoglossus hippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus stenolepisFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homarus americanusFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hoplostethus atlanticusFooDB
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hypholoma fasciculareLOTUS Database
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Ictalurus punctatusFooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Katsuwonus pelamisFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Leiostomus xanthurusFooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
Lepomis gibbosusFooDB
Leptasterias polarisLOTUS Database
Lethasterias nanimensisLOTUS Database
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Lophius piscatoriusFooDB
Lopholatilus chamaeleonticepsFooDB
Lota lotaFooDB
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
Luffariella geometrica-
Lupinus albusFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Marchantia polymorphaLOTUS Database
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Merlangius merlangusFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Micropogonias undulatusFooDB
Microstomus kittFooDB
Mimosa pudicaLOTUS Database
Mirabilis jalpaKNApSAcK Database
Molva molvaFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
Morone saxatilisFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Mugil cephalusFooDB
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Mycoplasmopsis bovisLOTUS Database
Myristica fragransFooDB
Mytilus edulisFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Neptunea antiquaLOTUS Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Octopus vulgarisFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
Oncorhynchus gorbuschaFooDB
Oncorhynchus ketaFooDB
Oncorhynchus kisutchFooDB
Oncorhynchus mykissFooDB
Oncorhynchus nerkaFooDB
Oncorhynchus tshawytschaFooDB
Onobrychis viciifoliaLOTUS Database
Ophiodon elongatusFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia ficus-indicaLOTUS Database
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Osmerus mordaxFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Panax notoginsengLOTUS Database
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Paralithodes camtschaticusFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Penicillium aethiopicumFungi
Pennisetum americanumLOTUS Database
Peprilus triacanthusFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Periplaneta americanaLOTUS Database
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Peucedanum japonicumLOTUS Database
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Pinus ponderosaLOTUS Database
Piper kadsuraLOTUS Database
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Plumbago zeylanicaKNApSAcK Database
Pollachius pollachiusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Pomatomus saltatrixFooDB
Populus tremulaLOTUS Database
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Pratia nummulariaKNApSAcK Database
Prosopis julifloraLOTUS Database
Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.KNApSAcK Database
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Pseudo-nitzschia multistriataLOTUS Database
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Reinhardtius hippoglossoidesFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
Ripariosida hermaphroditaLOTUS Database
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Sagittaria sagittifoliaLOTUS Database
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salmo salarFooDB
Salmo trutta forma truttaFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scomberomorus cavallaFooDB
Scomberomorus maculatusFooDB
Scophthalmus maximusFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Scrophularia cryptophilaLOTUS Database
Sebastes alutusFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Seriola lalandiFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
Smallanthus sonchifoliusLOTUS Database
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Stenodus leucichthysFooDB
Stenotomus chrysopsFooDB
Stratiotes aloidesLOTUS Database
Streptomyces albidoflavusLOTUS Database
Streptomyces venezuelaeLOTUS Database
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tecoma stansLOTUS Database
Telekia speciosaLOTUS Database
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
Thalassiosira pseudonanaLOTUS Database
Thunnus albacaresFooDB
Thunnus thynnusFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Trachinotus carolinusFooDB
Trachurus symmetricusFooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Treculia africanaLOTUS Database
Trifolium pratense L.KNApSAcK Database
Trifolium repensPlant
Trifolium repens L.KNApSAcK Database
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Trisopterus esmarkiiFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
Ulmus thomasiiLOTUS Database
Undaria pinnatifidaFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium dunalianumLOTUS Database
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vicia sativaLOTUS Database
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
Virola surinamensisFooDB
Vitellaria paradoxaFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis viniferaLOTUS Database
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Xiphias gladiusFooDB
Youngia japonicaLOTUS Database
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Zoarces americanusFooDB
Zyzzya fuliginosa-
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coli K12KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Pleurocybella porrigensKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. Indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an indole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Indolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • 3-alkylindole
  • Indole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Benzenoid
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrole
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Azacycle
  • Amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point230 °CNot Available
Boiling Point269.00 to 270.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility13.4 mg/mL at 25 °CYalkowsky, S. H., & Dannenfelser, R. M. (1992). Aquasol database of aqueous solubility. College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 189.
LogP-1.06Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.36 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.54ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area79.11 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity56.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability21.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB00150
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB002250
KNApSAcK IDC00001396
Chemspider ID6066
KEGG Compound IDC00078
BiGG ID33772
Wikipedia LinkTryptophan
PubChem Compound6305
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16828
Good Scents IDrw1027851
General References
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  2. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. [PubMed:9849813 ]
  3. Eklundh T, Eriksson M, Sjoberg S, Nordin C: Monoamine precursors, transmitters and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid: a prospective study in healthy male subjects. J Psychiatr Res. 1996 May-Jun;30(3):201-8. [PubMed:8884658 ]
  4. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [PubMed:15911239 ]
  5. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [PubMed:12297216 ]
  6. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [PubMed:14992292 ]
  7. Buczko W, Cylwik D, Stokowska W: [Metabolism of tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway in saliva]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2005;59:283-9. [PubMed:15995595 ]
  8. Heyes MP, Saito K, Crowley JS, Davis LE, Demitrack MA, Der M, Dilling LA, Elia J, Kruesi MJ, Lackner A, et al.: Quinolinic acid and kynurenine pathway metabolism in inflammatory and non-inflammatory neurological disease. Brain. 1992 Oct;115 ( Pt 5):1249-73. [PubMed:1422788 ]
  9. Koskiniemi M, Laakso J, Kuurne T, Laipio M, Harkonen M: Indole levels in human lumbar and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid and the effect of L-tryptophan administration. Acta Neurol Scand. 1985 Feb;71(2):127-32. [PubMed:2580417 ]
  10. Jonas AJ, Butler IJ: Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jul;84(1):200-4. [PubMed:2472426 ]
  11. Guchhait RB, Janson C, Price WH: Validity of plasma factor in schizophrenia as measured by tryptophan uptake. Biol Psychiatry. 1975 Jun;10(3):303-14. [PubMed:49200 ]
  12. Kennedy JS, Gwirtsman HE, Schmidt DE, Johnson BW, Fielstein E, Salomon RM, Shiavi RG, Ebert MH, Parris WC, Loosen PT: Serial cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan and 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid concentrations in healthy human subjects. Life Sci. 2002 Aug 23;71(14):1703-15. [PubMed:12137916 ]
  13. Bender KI, Lutsevich NF, Lutsevich AN, Kupchikov VV: [Endogenous metabolites as modulators of the transport of drugs by serum albumin]. Farmakol Toksikol. 1990 May-Jun;53(3):72-80. [PubMed:2201566 ]
  14. Heiman-Patterson TD, Bird SJ, Parry GJ, Varga J, Shy ME, Culligan NW, Edelsohn L, Tatarian GT, Heyes MP, Garcia CA, et al.: Peripheral neuropathy associated with eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1990 Oct;28(4):522-8. [PubMed:2174666 ]
  15. Talbert AM, Tranter GE, Holmes E, Francis PL: Determination of drug-plasma protein binding kinetics and equilibria by chromatographic profiling: exemplification of the method using L-tryptophan and albumin. Anal Chem. 2002 Jan 15;74(2):446-52. [PubMed:11811421 ]
  16. Dunner DL, Heiber S, Perel JM: The effect of L-tryptophan administration on the concentration of probenecid in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in patients. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1977 Aug 16;53(3):305-8. [PubMed:408860 ]
  17. George CF, Millar TW, Hanly PJ, Kryger MH: The effect of L-tryptophan on daytime sleep latency in normals: correlation with blood levels. Sleep. 1989 Aug;12(4):345-53. [PubMed:2669092 ]
  18. Gutsche B, Grun C, Scheutzow D, Herderich M: Tryptophan glycoconjugates in food and human urine. Biochem J. 1999 Oct 1;343 Pt 1:11-9. [PubMed:10493906 ]
  19. Milburn DS, Myers CW: Tryptophan toxicity: a pharmacoepidemiologic review of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. DICP. 1991 Nov;25(11):1259-62. [PubMed:1763543 ]
  20. Gross B, Ronen N, Honigman S, Livne E: Tryptophan toxicity--time and dose response in rats. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;467:507-16. [PubMed:10721094 ]
  21. Guo L, Schurink B, Roos E, Nossent EJ, Duitman JW, Vlaar AP, van der Valk P, Vaz FM, Yeh SR, Geeraerts Z, Dijkhuis A, van Vught L, Bugiani M, Lutter R: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-1 and IDO-2 activity and severe course of COVID-19. J Pathol. 2022 Mar;256(3):256-261. doi: 10.1002/path.5842. Epub 2022 Jan 10. [PubMed:34859884 ]