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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:42:11 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001099
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameSorbitol
DescriptionSorbitol is a polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications. Ascorbic acid fermentation; in solution form for moisture-conditioning of cosmetic creams and lotions, toothpaste, tobacco, gelatin; bodying agent for paper, textiles, and liquid pharmaceuticals; softener for candy; sugar crystallization inhibitor; surfactants; urethane resins and rigid foams; plasticizer, stabilizer for vinyl resins; food additive (sweetener, humectant, emulsifier, thickener, anticaking agent); dietary supplement. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary) Biological Source: Occurs widely in plants ranging from algae to the higher orders. Fruits of the plant family Rosaceae, which include apples, pears, cherries, apricots, contain appreciable amounts. Rich sources are the fruits of the Sorbus and Crataegus species Use/Importance: Used for manufacturing of sorbose, propylene glycol, ascorbic acid, resins, plasticizers and as antifreeze mixtures with glycerol or glycol. Tablet diluent, sweetening agent and humectant, other food uses. Sorbitol is used in photometric determination of Ru(VI) and Ru(VIII); in acid-base titration of borate (Dictionary of Organic Compounds).
e 420ChEBI
Sorbitol 3% in plastic containerKegg
Foodol D 70HMDB
Karion instantHMDB
Kyowa powder 50mHMDB
Neosorb 20/60dCHMDB
Neosorb 70/02HMDB
Neosorb 70/70HMDB
Neosorb p 20/60HMDB
Neosorb p 60HMDB
Neosorb p 60WHMDB
Sionit KHMDB
Sorbex mHMDB
Sorbex RHMDB
Sorbex SHMDB
Sorbex XHMDB
Sorbit D 70HMDB
Sorbit D-powderHMDB
Sorbit DP 50HMDB
Sorbit kyowa powder 50mHMDB
Sorbit L 70HMDB
Sorbit SHMDB
Sorbit T 70HMDB
Sorbit W 70HMDB
Sorbit W-powderHMDB
Sorbit W-powder 50HMDB
Sorbitol FHMDB
Sorbitol FKHMDB
Sorbitol FPHMDB
Sorbitol SHMDB
Sorbitol syrup CHMDB
Sorbogem 712HMDB
Medefield brand OF sorbitolHMDB
Sorbitol pfizer brandHMDB
Klysma sorbitHMDB
Trommsdorff brand OF sorbitolHMDB
Baxter brand OF sorbitolHMDB
Pfizer brand OF sorbitolHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H14O6
Average Mass182.1718 Da
Monoisotopic Mass182.07904 Da
IUPAC Name(2R,3R,4R,5S)-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol
Traditional NameD-sorbitol
CAS Registry Number50-70-4
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-08-12View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaLOTUS Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Aragoa cundinamarcensisKNApSAcK Database
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaKNApSAcK Database
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bifurcaria bifurcataLOTUS Database
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Bostrychia tenellaLOTUS Database
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
Carum carvi L.KNApSAcK Database
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cocos nuciferaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crataegus spp.KNApSAcK Database
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Dalea scandensLOTUS Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Heptapleurum bodinieriLOTUS Database
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Inonotus obliquusLOTUS Database
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Ligustrum robustumLOTUS Database
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Litoria verreauxiiLOTUS Database
Lotus corniculatusLOTUS Database
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaKNApSAcK Database
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengKNApSAcK Database
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phellinus igniariusLOTUS Database
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Plantago creticaKNApSAcK Database
Plantago subspathulataKNApSAcK Database
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Pogostemon cablinLOTUS Database
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumKNApSAcK Database
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus laurocerasusLOTUS Database
Prunus padusLOTUS Database
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salacia chinensisLOTUS Database
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaKNApSAcK Database
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetrachondra hamiltoniiLOTUS Database
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
Viscum albumLOTUS Database
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coli K12KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar alcohols. These are hydrogenated forms of carbohydrate in which the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar alcohols
Alternative Parents
  • Sugar alcohol
  • Monosaccharide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point11 °CNot Available
Boiling Point494.00 to 495.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility2750 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.20Sangster, J. (1993). LOGKOW- a Databank of Evaluated Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients. Sangster Research Laboratories, Montreal.
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility229 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.59ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area121.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity38.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.12 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB01638
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB030799
KNApSAcK IDC00001173
Chemspider ID5576
KEGG Compound IDC00794
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSorbitol
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5780
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17924
Good Scents IDrw1034721
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Airey CM, Price DE, Kemp JV, Perkins CM, Wales JK: The effect of aldose reductase inhibition on erythrocyte polyols and galactitol accumulation in diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 1989 Dec;6(9):804-8. [PubMed:2533041 ]
  3. Shetty HU, Holloway HW, Rapoport SI: Capillary gas chromatography combined with ion trap detection for quantitative profiling of polyols in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Anal Biochem. 1995 Jan 1;224(1):279-85. [PubMed:7710082 ]
  4. Sundkvist G, Dahlin LB, Nilsson H, Eriksson KF, Lindgarde F, Rosen I, Lattimer SA, Sima AA, Sullivan K, Greene DA: Sorbitol and myo-inositol levels and morphology of sural nerve in relation to peripheral nerve function and clinical neuropathy in men with diabetic, impaired, and normal glucose tolerance. Diabet Med. 2000 Apr;17(4):259-68. [PubMed:10821291 ]
  5. Morenkova SA: [Comparative analysis of dependence of saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes]. Biomed Khim. 2004;50(6):612-4. [PubMed:15707277 ]
  6. Bareford D, Jennings PE, Stone PC, Baar S, Barnett AH, Stuart J: Effects of hyperglycaemia and sorbitol accumulation on erythrocyte deformability in diabetes mellitus. J Clin Pathol. 1986 Jul;39(7):722-7. [PubMed:3090107 ]
  7. Ciuchi E, Odetti P, Prando R: Relationship between glutathione and sorbitol concentrations in erythrocytes from diabetic patients. Metabolism. 1996 May;45(5):611-3. [PubMed:8622605 ]
  8. Kwang-Hyok S, Ui-Nam P, Sarkar C, Bhadra R: A sensitive assay of red blood cell sorbitol level by high performance liquid chromatography: potential for diagnostic evaluation of diabetes. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Apr;354(1-2):41-7. Epub 2005 Jan 18. [PubMed:15748598 ]
  9. Nau R: Osmotherapy for elevated intracranial pressure: a critical reappraisal. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000 Jan;38(1):23-40. [PubMed:10668857 ]
  10. Belanger DR, Tierney MG, Dickinson G: Effect of sodium polystyrene sulfonate on lithium bioavailability. Ann Emerg Med. 1992 Nov;21(11):1312-5. [PubMed:1416324 ]
  11. Ciuchi E, Odetti P, Prando R: The effect of acute glutathione treatment on sorbitol level in erythrocytes from diabetic patients. Diabetes Metab. 1997 Feb;23(1):58-60. [PubMed:9059767 ]
  12. Shinohara R, Ohta Y, Yamauchi M, Ishiguro I: Improved fluorometric enzymatic sorbitol assay in human blood. Clin Chim Acta. 1998 May 25;273(2):171-84. [PubMed:9657347 ]
  13. Peterson MJ, Page MG, Just LJ, Aldinger CE, Malone JI: Applicability of red blood cell sorbitol measurements to monitor the clinical activity of sorbinil. Metabolism. 1986 Apr;35(4 Suppl 1):93-5. [PubMed:3515121 ]
  14. Vertommen J, Rillaerts E, Gysels M, De Leeuw I: Erythrocyte sorbitol content in diabetic patients: relation to metabolic control. Diabete Metab. 1987 Jun;13(3):182-6. [PubMed:3301442 ]
  15. Cunningham JJ, Mearkle PL, Brown RG: Vitamin C: an aldose reductase inhibitor that normalizes erythrocyte sorbitol in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Aug;13(4):344-50. [PubMed:7963139 ]
  16. Kamon N, Mabuchi H, Takeda R, Terashima H: Effects of aldose reductase inhibitor (ONO-2235) on human erythrocyte sorbitol concentrations in 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests. Horm Metab Res. 1991 May;23(5):226-9. [PubMed:1908433 ]
  17. Sizeland PC, Chambers ST, Lever M, Bason LM, Robson RA: Short-term response of nonurea organic osmolytes in human kidney to a water load and water deprivation. Am J Physiol. 1995 Feb;268(2 Pt 2):F227-33. [PubMed:7864160 ]
  18. van Griensven JM, Jusko WJ, Lemkes HH, Kroon R, Verhorst CJ, Chiang ST, Cohen AF: Tolrestat pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects on red blood cell sorbitol levels in normal volunteers and in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1995 Dec;58(6):631-40. [PubMed:8529328 ]
  19. Regenold WT, Kling MA, Hauser P: Elevated sorbitol concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with mood disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2000 Aug;25(6):593-606. [PubMed:10840171 ]
  20. Gehring H, Hornberger C, Dibbelt L, Dorges V, Eichenauer R, Schmucker P: Detecting and quantifying absorbed irrigation fluid by measuring mannitol and sorbitol concentrations in serum samples, and by ethanol monitoring. BJU Int. 2002 Feb;89(3):202-7. [PubMed:11856099 ]
  21. Burggraaf J, Schoemaker RC, Lentjes EG, Cohen AF: Sorbitol as a marker for drug-induced decreases of variable duration in liver blood flow in healthy volunteers. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2000 Dec;12(2):133-9. [PubMed:11102741 ]