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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 23:58:44 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001080
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameGlutathione
DescriptionGlutathione is a compound synthesized from cysteine, perhaps the most important member of the body's toxic waste disposal team. Like cysteine, glutathione contains the crucial thiol (-SH) group that makes it an effective antioxidant. There are virtually no living organisms on this planet-animal or plant whose cells don't contain some glutathione. Scientists have speculated that glutathione was essential to the very development of life on earth. Glutathione has many roles; in none does it act alone. It is a coenzyme in various enzymatic reactions. The most important of these are redox reactions, in which the thiol grouping on the cysteine portion of cell membranes protects against peroxidation; and conjugation reactions, in which glutathione (especially in the liver) binds with toxic chemicals in order to detoxify them. Glutathione is also important in red and white blood cell formation and throughout the immune system. Glutathione's clinical uses include the prevention of oxygen toxicity in hyperbaric oxygen therapy, treatment of lead and other heavy metal poisoning, lowering of the toxicity of chemotherapy and radiation in cancer treatments, and reversal of cataracts. (Http://Www.Dcnutrition.Com/AminoAcids/) glutathione participates in leukotriene synthesis and is a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is also important as a hydrophilic molecule that is added to lipophilic toxins and waste in the liver during biotransformation before they can become part of the bile. Glutathione is also needed for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a toxin produced as a by-product of metabolism. This detoxification reaction is carried out by the glyoxalase system. Glyoxalase I (EC 4.4.1.5) Catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione to S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione. Glyoxalase II (EC 3.1.2.6) Catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione to glutathione and D-lactate. GSH is known as a substrate in both conjugation reactions and reduction reactions, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes in cytosol, microsomes, and mitochondria. However, it is also capable of participating in non-enzymatic conjugation with some chemicals, as in the case of n-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive cytochrome P450-reactive metabolite formed by acetaminophen, that becomes toxic when GSH is depleted by an overdose (of acetaminophen). Glutathione in this capacity binds to NAPQI as a suicide substrate and in the process detoxifies it, taking the place of cellular protein thiol groups which would otherwise be covalently modified; when all GSH has been spent, NAPQI begins to react with the cellular proteins, killing the cells in the process. The preferred treatment for an overdose of this painkiller is the administration (usually in atomized form) of N-acetylcysteine, which is used by cells to replace spent GSSG and renew the usable GSH pool. (Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/glutathione).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineChEBI
gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineChEBI
Glutathione-SHChEBI
GSHChEBI
N-(N-gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineChEBI
Reduced glutathioneChEBI
Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteine)glycineKegg
(gamma-Glutamylcysteine)N-glycineKegg
TathionKegg
g-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineGenerator
Γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineGenerator
N-(N-g-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineGenerator
N-(N-Γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineGenerator
Poly(g-glutamylcysteine)glycineGenerator
Poly(γ-glutamylcysteine)glycineGenerator
(g-Glutamylcysteine)N-glycineGenerator
(Γ-glutamylcysteine)N-glycineGenerator
Agifutol SHMDB
Bakezyme RXHMDB
CoprenHMDB
DeltathioneHMDB
gamma-GlutamylcysteinylglycineHMDB
gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineHMDB
GlutathionHMDB
Glutathione redHMDB
Glutathione reducedHMDB
GlutatiolHMDB
GlutationeHMDB
GlutideHMDB
GlutinalHMDB
IsethionHMDB
L-g-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineHMDB
L-gamma-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineHMDB
L-gamma-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineHMDB
L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineHMDB
L-GlutathioneHMDB
L-Glutathione reduceHMDB
LedacHMDB
NeuthionHMDB
Red. glutathioneHMDB
TathioneHMDB
TriptideHMDB
Glutathione, reducedHMDB
gamma L Glu L cys glyHMDB
gamma-L-Glu-L-cys-glyHMDB
gamma L Glutamyl L cysteinylglycineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H17N3O6S
Average Mass307.3230 Da
Monoisotopic Mass307.08381 Da
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-4-{[(1R)-1-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]-2-sulfanylethyl]carbamoyl}butanoic acid
Traditional Nameglutathione
CAS Registry Number70-18-8
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(=O)N[C@@H](CS)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H17N3O6S/c11-5(10(18)19)1-2-7(14)13-6(4-20)9(17)12-3-8(15)16/h5-6,20H,1-4,11H2,(H,12,17)(H,13,14)(H,15,16)(H,18,19)/t5-,6-/m0/s1
InChI KeyRWSXRVCMGQZWBV-WDSKDSINSA-N
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-08-07View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumKNApSAcK Database
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloe africanaLOTUS Database
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativusLOTUS Database
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Enterococcus faecalisLOTUS Database
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
OdocoileusFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Synechococcus elongatusLOTUS Database
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
ThelespermaFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaKNApSAcK Database
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coliKNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as peptides. Peptides are compounds containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha peptide
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Alkylthiol
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point195 °CNot Available
Boiling Point754.00 to 755.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility292.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-1.645 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-4.9ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area158.82 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity69.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.11 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000125
DrugBank IDDB00143
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003866
KNApSAcK IDC00001518
Chemspider ID111188
KEGG Compound IDC02471
BioCyc IDGLUTATHIONE
BiGG ID33669
Wikipedia LinkGlutathione
METLIN ID44
PubChem Compound124886
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16856
Good Scents IDrw1248341
References
General References
  1. Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, Tyurin V, Ruppel RA, Adelson PD, Graham SH, Janesko K, Clark RS, Kochanek PM: Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):571-8. [PubMed:11978879 ]
  2. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2:18. [PubMed:15882454 ]
  3. Djurhuus R, Segadal K, Svardal AM: Glutathione in blood cells decreases without DNA breaks after a simulated saturation dive to 250 msw. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Jun;77(6):597-604. [PubMed:16780237 ]
  4. Hung CR: Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct 7;11(37):5853-8. [PubMed:16270397 ]
  5. Grattagliano I, Portincasa P, Palmieri VO, Palasciano G: Contribution of canalicular glutathione efflux to bile formation. From cholestasis associated alterations to pharmacological intervention to modify bile flow. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2005 Jun;5(2):153-61. [PubMed:16089347 ]
  6. Calvo-Marzal P, Chumbimuni-Torres KY, Hoehr NF, Kubota LT: Determination of glutathione in hemolysed erythrocyte with amperometric sensor based on TTF-TCNQ. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Sep;371(1-2):152-8. Epub 2006 May 2. [PubMed:16650398 ]
  7. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Ravagna A, Bella R, Butterfield DA, Calvani M, Pennisi G, Giuffrida Stella AM: Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. Neurochem Res. 2003 Sep;28(9):1321-8. [PubMed:12938853 ]
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