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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2024-04-19 09:51:10 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001062
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameCreatine
DescriptionCreatine, is a naturally occurring non-protein compound. It belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof. Creatine is found in all vertebrates where it facilitates recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Its primary metabolic role is to combine with a phosphoryl group, via the enzyme creatine kinase, to generate phosphocreatine, which is used to regenerate ATP. Most of the human body's total creatine and phosphocreatine stores are found in skeletal muscle (95%), while the remainder is distributed in the blood, brain, testes, and other tissues. Creatine is not an essential nutrient as it is naturally produced in the human body from the amino acids glycine and arginine, with an additional requirement for methionine to catalyze the transformation of guanidinoacetate to creatine. In the first step of its biosynthesis glycine and arginine are combined by the enzyme arginine:Glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) to form guanidinoacetate, which is then methylated by guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT), using S-adenosyl methionine as the methyl donor. Creatine can also be obtained through the diet at a rate of about 1 gram per day from an omnivorous diet. A cyclic form of creatine, called creatinine, exists in equilibrium with its tautomer and with creatine. Clinically, there are three distinct disorders of creatine metabolism. Deficiencies in the two synthesis enzymes (AGAT and GAMT) can cause L-arginine:Glycine amidinotransferase deficiency (caused by variants in AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (caused by variants in GAMT). Both disorders are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. A third defect, creatine transporter defect, is caused by mutations in SLC6A8 and inherited in a X-linked manner. Creatine is widely used as a supplement by athletes. Its use can increase maximum power and performance in high-intensity anaerobic repetitive work (periods of work and rest) by 5 to 15% (PMID: 24688272 ). Creatine has no significant effect on aerobic endurance, although it will increase power during short sessions of high-intensity aerobic exercise (PMID: 9662683 ).
((Amino(imino)methyl)(methyl)amino)acetic acidChEBI
(alpha-Methylguanido)acetic acidChEBI
(N-Methylcarbamimidamido)acetic acidChEBI
alpha-Methylguanidino acetic acidChEBI
(a-Methylguanido)acetic acidGenerator
(Α-methylguanido)acetic acidGenerator
a-Methylguanidino acetateGenerator
a-Methylguanidino acetic acidGenerator
alpha-Methylguanidino acetateGenerator
Α-methylguanidino acetateGenerator
Α-methylguanidino acetic acidGenerator
Cosmocair C 100HMDB
Creatine hydrateHMDB
Methylguanidoacetic acidHMDB
[[Amino(imino)methyl](methyl)amino]acetic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H9N3O2
Average Mass131.1332 Da
Monoisotopic Mass131.06948 Da
IUPAC Name2-(N-methylcarbamimidamido)acetic acid
Traditional Namecreatine
CAS Registry Number57-00-1
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-19View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-19View Spectrum
1D NMR[1H, ] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)bgnzk@missouri.eduNot AvailableNot Available2023-08-23View Spectrum
1D NMR[1H, ] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)bgnzk@missouri.eduNot AvailableNot Available2023-08-23View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Not Available
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Carcharhinus obscurusLOTUS Database
Carica papayaKNApSAcK Database
Carica papaya L.Plant
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Citrus natsudaidaiLOTUS Database
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lates calcariferLOTUS Database
Lepus timidusFooDB
Litoria verreauxiiLOTUS Database
Lucilia sericataLOTUS Database
Malus pumilaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Thalassiosira pseudonanaLOTUS Database
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Guanidine
  • Carboximidamide
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Imine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point303 °CNot Available
Boiling Point536.92 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility13.3 mg/mL at 18 °CNot Available
LogP10.982 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility4.11 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area90.41 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity42.01 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.17 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB00148
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB005403
KNApSAcK IDC00052250
Chemspider ID566
KEGG Compound IDC00300
BiGG ID34543
Wikipedia LinkCreatine
PubChem Compound586
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16919
Good Scents IDrw1364761
General References
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  2. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Clin Chem. 1984 Mar;30(3):426-32. [PubMed:6321058 ]
  3. Schonberger B: [Overactive bladder--which diagnosis investigations are necessary before initiating primary treatment?]. Urologe A. 2003 Jun;42(6):787-92. Epub 2003 Apr 25. [PubMed:12851769 ]
  4. Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Stoeckler-Ipsiroglu S, Adami A, Appleton R, Araujo HC, Duran M, Ensenauer R, Fernandez-Alvarez E, Garcia P, Grolik C, Item CB, Leuzzi V, Marquardt I, Muhl A, Saelke-Kellermann RA, Salomons GS, Schulze A, Surtees R, van der Knaap MS, Vasconcelos R, Verhoeven NM, Vilarinho L, Wilichowski E, Jakobs C: GAMT deficiency: features, treatment, and outcome in an inborn error of creatine synthesis. Neurology. 2006 Aug 8;67(3):480-4. Epub 2006 Jul 19. [PubMed:16855203 ]
  5. McConell GK, Shinewell J, Stephens TJ, Stathis CG, Canny BJ, Snow RJ: Creatine supplementation reduces muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Dec;37(12):2054-61. [PubMed:16331129 ]
  6. McMorris T, Harris RC, Swain J, Corbett J, Collard K, Dyson RJ, Dye L, Hodgson C, Draper N: Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Mar;185(1):93-103. Epub 2006 Jan 17. [PubMed:16416332 ]
  7. Wang PF, McLeish MJ, Kneen MM, Lee G, Kenyon GL: An unusually low pK(a) for Cys282 in the active site of human muscle creatine kinase. Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 2;40(39):11698-705. [PubMed:11570870 ]
  8. Olsen S, Aagaard P, Kadi F, Tufekovic G, Verney J, Olesen JL, Suetta C, Kjaer M: Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training. J Physiol. 2006 Jun 1;573(Pt 2):525-34. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [PubMed:16581862 ]
  9. Ellington WR: A dimeric creatine kinase from a sponge: implications in terms of phosphagen kinase evolution. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2000 May;126(1):1-7. [PubMed:10825659 ]
  10. Fredericks S, Murray JF, Bewick M, Chang R, Collinson PO, Carter ND, Holt DW: Cardiac troponin T and creatine kinase MB are not increased in exterior oblique muscle of patients with renal failure. Clin Chem. 2001 Jun;47(6):1023-30. [PubMed:11375287 ]
  11. Jiao YF, Okumiya T, Saibara T, Kudo Y, Sugiura T: Erythrocyte creatine as a marker of excessive erythrocyte destruction due to hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis. Clin Biochem. 2001 Jul;34(5):395-8. [PubMed:11522277 ]
  12. Nicholson JK, Buckingham MJ, Sadler PJ: High resolution 1H n.m.r. studies of vertebrate blood and plasma. Biochem J. 1983 Jun 1;211(3):605-15. [PubMed:6411064 ]
  13. Sheth NP, Sennett B, Berns JS: Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following arthroscopic knee surgery in a college football player taking creatine supplements. Clin Nephrol. 2006 Feb;65(2):134-7. [PubMed:16509464 ]
  14. Jenkins CB, Ghidini A, Spong CY, Eglinton GS, Pezzullo JC, Michejda M: Evaluation of early second trimester maternal serum creatine kinase isoenzyme BB as a marker of poor pregnancy outcome. Fetal Diagn Ther. 1997 Nov-Dec;12(6):356-9. [PubMed:9475367 ]
  15. Lukaszuk JM, Robertson RJ, Arch JE, Moyna NM: Effect of a defined lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on plasma creatine concentration. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Nov;19(4):735-40. [PubMed:16287366 ]
  16. Preen DB, Dawson BT, Goodman C, Beilby J, Ching S: Comparison of erythrocyte and skeletal muscle creatine accumulation following creatine loading. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005 Feb;15(1):84-93. [PubMed:15902992 ]
  17. Poortmans JR, Kumps A, Duez P, Fofonka A, Carpentier A, Francaux M: Effect of oral creatine supplementation on urinary methylamine, formaldehyde, and formate. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005 Oct;37(10):1717-20. [PubMed:16260971 ]
  18. Yoshizumi WM, Tsourounis C: Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function. J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(1):1-7. [PubMed:15273072 ]
  19. Harris RC, Almada AL, Harris DB, Dunnett M, Hespel P: The creatine content of Creatine Serum and the change in the plasma concentration with ingestion of a single dose. J Sports Sci. 2004 Sep;22(9):851-7. [PubMed:15513279 ]
  20. Mendes RR, Pires I, Oliveira A, Tirapegui J: Effects of creatine supplementation on the performance and body composition of competitive swimmers. J Nutr Biochem. 2004 Aug;15(8):473-8. [PubMed:15302082 ]
  21. Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA, Candow DG: Effect of alpha-lipoic acid combined with creatine monohydrate on human skeletal muscle creatine and phosphagen concentration. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Sep;13(3):294-302. [PubMed:14669930 ]
  22. Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, Cederblad G, Greenhaff PL: Muscle creatine loading in men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996 Jul;81(1):232-7. [PubMed:8828669 ]
  23. Dangott B, Schultz E, Mozdziak PE: Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation increases satellite cell mitotic activity during compensatory hypertrophy. Int J Sports Med. 2000 Jan;21(1):13-6. [PubMed:10683092 ]
  24. Hespel P, Op't Eijnde B, Van Leemputte M, Urso B, Greenhaff PL, Labarque V, Dymarkowski S, Van Hecke P, Richter EA: Oral creatine supplementation facilitates the rehabilitation of disuse atrophy and alters the expression of muscle myogenic factors in humans. J Physiol. 2001 Oct 15;536(Pt 2):625-33. [PubMed:11600695 ]
  25. Juhn M: Popular sports supplements and ergogenic aids. Sports Med. 2003;33(12):921-39. [PubMed:12974658 ]
  26. Bird SP: Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: a brief review. J Sports Sci Med. 2003 Dec 1;2(4):123-32. eCollection 2003 Dec. [PubMed:24688272 ]
  27. Engelhardt M, Neumann G, Berbalk A, Reuter I: Creatine supplementation in endurance sports. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Jul;30(7):1123-9. doi: 10.1097/00005768-199807000-00016. [PubMed:9662683 ]
  28. Liu Y, Xia P, Cao W, Liu Z, Ma J, Zheng K, Chen L, Li X, Qin Y, Li X: Divergence between serum creatine and cystatin C in estimating glomerular filtration rate of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Ren Fail. 2021 Dec;43(1):1104-1114. doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2021.1948428. [PubMed:34238117 ]