Np mrd loader

You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on NP-MRD.
Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 23:58:41 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001031
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common Namebeta-Sitosterol
DescriptionBeta-Sitosterol, a main dietary phytosterol found in plants, may have the potential for prevention and therapy for human cancer. Phytosterols are plant sterols found in foods such as oils, nuts, and vegetables. Phytosterols, in the same way as cholesterol, contain a double bond and are susceptible to oxidation, and are characterized by anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherogenic properties (PMID: 13129445 , 11432711 ). Beta-Sitosterol is a phytopharmacological extract containing a mixture of phytosterols, with smaller amounts of other sterols, bonded with glucosides. These phytosterols are commonly derived from the South African star grass, Hypoxis rooperi, or from species of Pinus and Picea. The purported active constituent is termed beta-sitosterol. Additionally, the quantity of beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside is often reported. Although the exact mechanism of action of beta-sitosterols is unknown, it may be related to cholesterol metabolism or anti-inflammatory effects (via interference with prostaglandin metabolism). Compared with placebo, beta-sitosterol improved urinary symptom scores and flow measures (PMID: 10368239 ). A plant food-based diet modifies the serum beta-sitosterol concentration in hyperandrogenic postmenopausal women. This finding indicates that beta-sitosterol can be used as a biomarker of exposure in observational studies or as a compliance indicator in dietary intervention studies of cancer prevention (PMID: 14652381 ). Beta-Sitosterol induces apoptosis and activates key caspases in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells (PMID: 12579296 ).
24-Ethylcholest-5-en-3 beta-olHMDB
Sitosterol, (3beta)-isomerHMDB
Chemical FormulaC29H50O
Average Mass414.7180 Da
Monoisotopic Mass414.38617 Da
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,5S,10S,11S,14R,15R)-14-[(2R,5R)-5-ethyl-6-methylheptan-2-yl]-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-7-en-5-ol
Traditional Name(1S,2R,5S,10S,11S,14R,15R)-14-[(2R,5R)-5-ethyl-6-methylheptan-2-yl]-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-7-en-5-ol
CAS Registry Number83-46-5
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Abutilon indicumPlant
Acacia pennatulaPlant
Aceraceae nikoense-
Achillea alexandri-regis Bornm.& RudskiKNApSAcK Database
Achyranthes asperaPlant
Achyrocline tomentosaKNApSAcK Database
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Adansonia digitataKNApSAcK Database
Adenosma caeruleumKNApSAcK Database
Adiantum caudatumKNApSAcK Database
Aegle marmelosPlant
Aesculus punduanaKNApSAcK Database
Aganosma caryophyllata-
Agaricus bisporus
Agave mellifluaKNApSAcK Database
Agave palmarisKNApSAcK Database
Ageratina adenophoraPlant
Ageratina conyzoidesPlant
Aglaia rubiginosaKNApSAcK Database
Ailanthus altissimaKNApSAcK Database
Ailanthus altissimusPlant
Ajania fruticulosaKNApSAcK Database
Ajuga taiwanensisKNApSAcK Database
Alchornea cordifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Aleurites fordii Hemsl.KNApSAcK Database
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium obliquumPlant
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphylla
Alpinia pinnanensisKNApSAcK Database
Amelanchier alnifolia
Amentotaxus yunnanensisKNApSAcK Database
Amsonia angustifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Andrographis paniculataKNApSAcK Database
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica furcijuga KITAGAWAKNApSAcK Database
Angelica keiskei
Anisomeles indicaKNApSAcK Database
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona purpureaKNApSAcK Database
Annona reticulataKNApSAcK Database
Annona squamosa
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Aristolochia elegansKNApSAcK Database
Aristolochia heterophylla HemslKNApSAcK Database
Aristolochia kaempferiKNApSAcK Database
Aristolochia manshuriensisKNApSAcK Database
Aristolochia pubescensKNApSAcK Database
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Arnebia hispidissimaPlant
Arnebia nobilisPlant
Artabotrys uncinatusKNApSAcK Database
Artemisia annuaPlant
Artemisia annua L.KNApSAcK Database
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia minorKNApSAcK Database
Artemisia sieversianaKNApSAcK Database
Artemisia vulgarisKNApSAcK Database
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Asparagus racemosusKNApSAcK Database
Asparagus tenuifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Asphodeline globiferaKNApSAcK Database
Asplenium laciniatumKNApSAcK Database
Astragalus glycyphyllosKNApSAcK Database
Atta sexdens rubropilosaKNApSAcK Database
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaKNApSAcK Database
Azadirachta indicaKNApSAcK Database
Ballota limbataKNApSAcK Database
Basella alba
Bauhinia candicansKNApSAcK Database
Bauhinia vahlii L.KNApSAcK Database
Begonia nantoensisKNApSAcK Database
Beilschmiedia anacardiolidesKNApSAcK Database
Beilschmiedia zenkeriKNApSAcK Database
Benincasa hispida
Berberis pseudanubalataKNApSAcK Database
Bergenia ligulataKNApSAcK Database
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Bishofia javanica-
Bituminaria bituminosaKNApSAcK Database
Blepharis sindicaKNApSAcK Database
Blutaparon portulacoidesKNApSAcK Database
Boehmeria holosericeaKNApSAcK Database
Boehmeria tricuspisKNApSAcK Database
Borago officinalis
Borassus flabelliferKNApSAcK Database
Bos taurusFooDB
Boswellia papyriferaKNApSAcK Database
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napus
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum acutifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Brosimum alicastrum
Buddleja madagascariensisKNApSAcK Database
Byrsonima crassifolia
Caesalpinia pulcherrimaKNApSAcK Database
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Callicarpa arboreaKNApSAcK Database
Callicarpa integerrimaKNApSAcK Database
Callicarpa macrophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Callicarpa pilosissimaKNApSAcK Database
Calophyllum bracteatumKNApSAcK Database
Calophyllum trapezifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis inflorescencesKNApSAcK Database
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis aegyptiaKNApSAcK Database
Capparis desertiKNApSAcK Database
Capparis leucophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Caragana microphyllaKNApSAcK Database
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carviFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
Casearia ilicifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Cassia dentataKNApSAcK Database
Cassia javanicaKNApSAcK Database
Cassia macranthaKNApSAcK Database
Cassia multijugaKNApSAcK Database
Cassia siameaKNApSAcK Database
Cassia speciosaKNApSAcK Database
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Casuarina equisetifolia L.KNApSAcK Database
Casuarina junghanianaKNApSAcK Database
Casuarina rigidaKNApSAcK Database
Ceiba pentandraKNApSAcK Database
Celtis laevigataKNApSAcK Database
Centaurea cineraria L.KNApSAcK Database
Centrosema pubescensKNApSAcK Database
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
Chaenomeles sinensis KOEHNEKNApSAcK Database
Chamaecyparis formosensisKNApSAcK Database
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamerion angustifolium
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoa
Chione venosa (sw.) Urban var.venosaKNApSAcK Database
Chorisia insignis-
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybusKNApSAcK Database
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum subaveniumKNApSAcK Database
Cinnamomum tenuifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
Cinnamosma madagascariensisKNApSAcK Database
Cipadessa boivininaKNApSAcK Database
Cipadessa cinerascensKNApSAcK Database
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maxima
Citrus paradisi
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus trifoliataPlant
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Clarisia racemosa P.KNApSAcK Database
Clausena pentaphylla (Roxb.)DC.KNApSAcK Database
Cleidion spiciflorum (Burm. f.) Merr.KNApSAcK Database
Cleistocalyx operculatusKNApSAcK Database
Clerodendron neutensKNApSAcK Database
Coccoloba excoriataKNApSAcK Database
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraKNApSAcK Database
Coffea charrierianaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea congensisKNApSAcK Database
Coffea eugenioidesKNApSAcK Database
Coffea hetero calyxKNApSAcK Database
Coffea humblotianaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea humilisKNApSAcK Database
Coffea kapakataKNApSAcK Database
Coffea liberica var.dewevreiKNApSAcK Database
Coffea liberica var.libericaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea pseudozanguebariaeKNApSAcK Database
Coffea racemosaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea salvatrixKNApSAcK Database
Coffea sessilifloraKNApSAcK Database
Coffea stenophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
Combretum quadrangulareKNApSAcK Database
Commiphora confusaKNApSAcK Database
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Corethrodendron multijugumPlant
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
Cornus kousaKNApSAcK Database
Corylus avellanaKNApSAcK Database
Corylus maximaKNApSAcK Database
Costus speciosusKNApSAcK Database
Couepia polyandraKNApSAcK Database
Coussarea brevicaulisKNApSAcK Database
Crateva religiosa
Cremanthodium ellisiiKNApSAcK Database
Crocus sativus
Crotalaria assamicaKNApSAcK Database
Crotalaria pallidaKNApSAcK Database
Crotalaria walkeriKNApSAcK Database
Croton arboreousKNApSAcK Database
Croton lechleri Mull.Arg.KNApSAcK Database
Croton urucuranaKNApSAcK Database
Croton urucurana Baill.KNApSAcK Database
Croton zambesicusKNApSAcK Database
Crotone hieronymi-
Cryptocarya idenburgensisKNApSAcK Database
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschata
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblonga
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cymbopogon flexuosusKNApSAcK Database
Cymodocea serrulataKNApSAcK Database
Cynanchum taiwanianumKNApSAcK Database
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Dalbergia odoriferaKNApSAcK Database
Dalbergia volubilisKNApSAcK Database
Dalea tuberculataKNApSAcK Database
Daphne odoraKNApSAcK Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Debaryomyces hansenii-
Dendrobium nobilePlant
Dendrobium nobile Lindl.KNApSAcK Database
Derris obtusaKNApSAcK Database
Dichrostachys cinerea Maab.KNApSAcK Database
Dicliptera ripariaKNApSAcK Database
Dictamnus angustifoliusKNApSAcK Database
Dictamnus hispanicusKNApSAcK Database
Dictyoloma vandellianumKNApSAcK Database
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea colletiiPlant
Dioscorea collettiiKNApSAcK Database
Dioscorea communisPlant
Dioscorea cyphocarpaKNApSAcK Database
Dioscorea oppositaKNApSAcK Database
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
Diospyros acutaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros buxifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros chaetocarpaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros chloroxylonKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros cordifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros discolorKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros ebenasterKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros ebenumKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros erianthaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros ferreaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros hirsutaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros indicaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros kakiKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros kirkiiKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros lotusKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros malanonilauKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros melanoxylonKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros montanaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros mooniiKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros morrisianaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros oblongifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros oppositifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros peregrinaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros quaesitaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros rheophyticaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros rhodocalyxKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros spinescensKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros texanaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros thwaitesiiKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros tomentosaKNApSAcK Database
Diospyros virginiana
Diospyros walkeriKNApSAcK Database
Disporopsis asperaKNApSAcK Database
Disporopsis aspersaPlant
Dittrichia viscosaPlant
Dorstenia angusticornisKNApSAcK Database
Dorstenia barteri var. subtriangularisKNApSAcK Database
Dorstenia zenkeriKNApSAcK Database
Dracaena dracoKNApSAcK Database
Dryopteris crassirhizomaKNApSAcK Database
Drypetes inaequalisKNApSAcK Database
Drypetes tessmannianaKNApSAcK Database
Duhaldea cappaPlant
Duranta plumieriKNApSAcK Database
Durio zibethinus
Dysoxylum macranthumKNApSAcK Database
Dysphania ambrosioides
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Eleutherococcus senticosus Rupr.and Maxim.KNApSAcK Database
Embelia ribes Burm.KNApSAcK Database
Empetrum nigrum
Enhalus acoroidesKNApSAcK Database
Enkianthus cernuusKNApSAcK Database
Entada scandensKNApSAcK Database
Ephedra campylopodaKNApSAcK Database
Ephedra sinicaKNApSAcK Database
Epigaea asiaticaKNApSAcK Database
Eragrostis tef
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eriolaena hookerianaKNApSAcK Database
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Erycibe expansaKNApSAcK Database
Erysimum carniolicumKNApSAcK Database
Erythrina arborescens Roxb.KNApSAcK Database
Erythroxylum ovalifoliumPlant
Erythroxylum passerinumPlant
Erythroxylum rimosumPlant
Erythroxylum subsessilePlant
Eucalyptus camaldulensis var.obtusaKNApSAcK Database
Eucalyptus citriodoraKNApSAcK Database
Eucalyptus cladocalyxKNApSAcK Database
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Euonymus alatusKNApSAcK Database
Eupatorium macrocephalum Lee.KNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia guyonianaKNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia indicaKNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia lathyrisKNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia micractinaKNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia paraliasKNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia pulcherrimaKNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia segetalisKNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia sessiliflora Roxb.KNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia tanquahueteKNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia tirucalliKNApSAcK Database
Euphorbia tithymaloidesPlant
Eutrema japonicum
Eysenhardtia platycarpaKNApSAcK Database
Fagara heitziiKNApSAcK Database
Fagara tessmannii Engl.KNApSAcK Database
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricum
Falcatifolium taxoidesKNApSAcK Database
Feijoa sellowiana
Ferula assa-foetidaKNApSAcK Database
Ferula diversivittataKNApSAcK Database
Ferula szowitsianaKNApSAcK Database
Ferula szowitzianaPlant
Ficus bengalensisKNApSAcK Database
Ficus caricaKNApSAcK Database
Ficus eriobotryoidesKNApSAcK Database
Ficus palmataKNApSAcK Database
Ficus septicaKNApSAcK Database
Flammulina velutipes
Flemingia macrophylla-
Flindersia laevicarpa C.T.White et Francis.KNApSAcK Database
Flueggea microcarpa-
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassa
Frullania brasiliensisKNApSAcK Database
Frullania monoceraKNApSAcK Database
Garcinia afzeliiPlant
Garcinia afzelii ENGL.KNApSAcK Database
Garcinia echinocarpaKNApSAcK Database
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Garcinia mangostana L.KNApSAcK Database
Garcinia multifloraKNApSAcK Database
Garcinia polyanthaKNApSAcK Database
Garcinia terpnophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Gaylussacia baccata
Gentiana luteaPlant
Gentiana lutea L.KNApSAcK Database
Geranium macrorrhizum L.KNApSAcK Database
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Ginkgo biloba L.KNApSAcK Database
Gleditsia sinensis LAM.KNApSAcK Database
Glochidion puberumKNApSAcK Database
Glycine maxKNApSAcK Database
Gnaphalium pellitumKNApSAcK Database
Gomphrena celosioidesKNApSAcK Database
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Guarea macrophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Guazuma tomentosaKNApSAcK Database
Halodule uninervisKNApSAcK Database
Halophila ovalisKNApSAcK Database
Halophila ovataKNApSAcK Database
Halophila spinulosaKNApSAcK Database
Haplophyllum acutifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Hedysarum alpinum
Hedysarum multijugumKNApSAcK Database
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosus
Helicteres angustifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Heliotropium indicumKNApSAcK Database
Heliotropium marifoliumPlant
Hemerocallus minor-
Henriettea fascicularisPlant
Henriettella fascicularisKNApSAcK Database
Heracleum granatenseKNApSAcK Database
Heterothalamus spartioidesKNApSAcK Database
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoides L.KNApSAcK Database
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hordeum vulgare MammutKNApSAcK Database
Hydrangea chinensisKNApSAcK Database
Hydrangea heteromallaKNApSAcK Database
Hyoscyamus nigerPlant
Hypericum carinatumKNApSAcK Database
Hypericum japonicumKNApSAcK Database
Hyphochytrium catenoides-
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Indigofera tetranthaKNApSAcK Database
Inula cappaKNApSAcK Database
Inula racemosaKNApSAcK Database
Inula viscosaKNApSAcK Database
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
Ipomoea nilPlant
Iris germanica L.KNApSAcK Database
Iris tenuifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Isatis indigoticaKNApSAcK Database
Isatis tinctoriaPlant
Isodon japonicaKNApSAcK Database
Jatropha weddellianaKNApSAcK Database
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans mandshuricaKNApSAcK Database
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaKNApSAcK Database
Junellia tridensKNApSAcK Database
Juniperus brevifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Justicia heterocarpa T.ANDERSKNApSAcK Database
Kadsura heteroclitaKNApSAcK Database
Kalmia latifolia L.KNApSAcK Database
Khaya ivorensisKNApSAcK Database
Khaya senegalensis L.KNApSAcK Database
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Laennecia sophiifoliaPlant
Laennecia sophiifolia (Kunth) G.L.NesomKNApSAcK Database
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lanurocerasus officinalis-
Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) CarrKNApSAcK Database
Lasianthus gardneriKNApSAcK Database
Lathyrus sativus
Launaea nudicaulisKNApSAcK Database
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Leonurus persicusKNApSAcK Database
Lepidium sativumFooDB
Lespedeza bicolorKNApSAcK Database
Leucothoe grayana Max.KNApSAcK Database
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Libanotis intermedia-
Ligularia odontomanesKNApSAcK Database
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensis
Litsea japonicaKNApSAcK Database
Lonicera quinquelocularisKNApSAcK Database
Loranthus falcatusKNApSAcK Database
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus albus
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Machilus zuihoensisKNApSAcK Database
Magnolia obovataKNApSAcK Database
Malpighia emarginata
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Markhamia stipulataKNApSAcK Database
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Maytenus guianensisKNApSAcK Database
Maytenus loevisKNApSAcK Database
Medicago sativaKNApSAcK Database
Melastoma intermediumKNApSAcK Database
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melianthus majorKNApSAcK Database
Melicope octandraKNApSAcK Database
Melicope semecarpifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha longifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Microtropis fokienensisKNApSAcK Database
Microtropis japonicaKNApSAcK Database
Millettia brandisianaKNApSAcK Database
Millettia conrauiKNApSAcK Database
Mimosa rubicaulisKNApSAcK Database
Mirabilis jalpaKNApSAcK Database
Mitragyna inermisPlant
Mitragyna rotundifoliaPlant
Mitragyna speciosaPlant
Mitragyna stipulosaPlant
Moghania strobilifera-
Momordica charantiaKNApSAcK Database
Morella rubra
Morinda citrifolia LKNApSAcK Database
Morinda officinalisPlant
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
Moringa peregrinaPlant
Morus insignisKNApSAcK Database
Morus nigra
Mucuna puriensPlant
Mulguraea tridensPlant
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Mussaenda macrophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Myrianthus arboreusKNApSAcK Database
Myristica fragransFooDB
Nauclea orientalisKNApSAcK Database
Nelumbo nucifera
Neoboutonia glabrescens PrainKNApSAcK Database
Neoboutonia melleriKNApSAcK Database
Neochamaelea pulverulentaKNApSAcK Database
Neolitsea aciculataKNApSAcK Database
Neolitsea acuminatissimaKNApSAcK Database
Neolitsea konishiiKNApSAcK Database
Neolitsea parvigemmaKNApSAcK Database
Neolitsea sericeaKNApSAcK Database
Nephelium lappaceum
Newbouldia laevisKNApSAcK Database
Nicotiana benthamianaKNApSAcK Database
Nothofagus pumilioKNApSAcK Database
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Nymphaea caeruleaKNApSAcK Database
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Ocimum spicatumKNApSAcK Database
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaea
Ophiorrhiza liukiuensisKNApSAcK Database
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia macrorhiza
Oriciopsis glaberrima ENGL.KNApSAcK Database
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
Orthosiphon stamineusKNApSAcK Database
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativaFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosus
Paederia foetidaKNApSAcK Database
Panax ginseng
Pangium edule
Panicum miliaceum
Parasitaxus ustaKNApSAcK Database
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
Pedilanthus tithymaloidesKNApSAcK Database
Pediomelum esculentum
Pelargonium reniformeKNApSAcK Database
Pelargonium sidoidesKNApSAcK Database
Pellia epiphyllaKNApSAcK Database
Perideridia oregana
Periploca aphyllaKNApSAcK Database
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Petrosia durissima-
Pharbitis nilKNApSAcK Database
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
Phellodendron amurense var.wilsoniiKNApSAcK Database
Phellodendron japonicum MAXIMKNApSAcK Database
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllanthus niruriKNApSAcK Database
Phyllanthus oligospermusKNApSAcK Database
Phyllanthus reticulatusKNApSAcK Database
Phyllostachys edulisKNApSAcK Database
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Picramnia antidesmaKNApSAcK Database
Picramnia latifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Pieris japonica D.Don.KNApSAcK Database
Pileostegia viburnoides var. glabrescensKNApSAcK Database
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
Pimpinella thellungianaKNApSAcK Database
Pinellia pedatisectaKNApSAcK Database
Pinus edulis
Pinus koraiensisKNApSAcK Database
Pinus sibiricaKNApSAcK Database
Pinus taedaKNApSAcK Database
Piper acutisleginumKNApSAcK Database
Piper aduncumKNApSAcK Database
Piper attenuatumKNApSAcK Database
Piper betleKNApSAcK Database
Piper brachystachyumKNApSAcK Database
Piper khasianaKNApSAcK Database
Piper nigrum L.KNApSAcK Database
Piper pedicellosumKNApSAcK Database
Piper peepuloidesKNApSAcK Database
Piper philippinumKNApSAcK Database
Piper retrofractum Vahl.KNApSAcK Database
Piper solmsianumKNApSAcK Database
Piper thomsoniKNApSAcK Database
Piper umbellatumKNApSAcK Database
Piptadenia macrocarpaKNApSAcK Database
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Plectranthus rugosusKNApSAcK Database
Pleodendron costaricenseKNApSAcK Database
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Pluchea sericeaKNApSAcK Database
Plumbago zeylanicaKNApSAcK Database
Poinsettia pulcherrimaKNApSAcK Database
Polyalthia longifolia var.pendulaKNApSAcK Database
Polygonum alpinum
Polygonum bistortaKNApSAcK Database
Polytrichum communeKNApSAcK Database
Poncirus trifoliataKNApSAcK Database
Populus pseudosimoniiKNApSAcK Database
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Posidonia oceanicaKNApSAcK Database
Pouteria sapota
Prosopis glandulosaKNApSAcK Database
Prosopis spicigeraKNApSAcK Database
Prumnopitys ferruginoidesKNApSAcK Database
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus avium
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersica
Prunus persica var. persica
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Pseudotsuga wilsonianaKNApSAcK Database
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Psychotria adenophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Pteridium aquilinumKNApSAcK Database
Pteris wallichianaKNApSAcK Database
Pterocarpus santalinusKNApSAcK Database
Pterodon apraricioiKNApSAcK Database
Pullularia pullulans-
Punica granatumKNApSAcK Database
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus glaucaPlant
Quercus glauca Thunb.KNApSAcK Database
Quercus myrsenaefoliaKNApSAcK Database
Quercus stenophylla Makino.KNApSAcK Database
Raphanus sativusKNApSAcK Database
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rhamnus wightiiPlant
Rheum rhabarbarum
Rhus wallichiKNApSAcK Database
Rhyzophlyctis rosea-
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Robinsonecio gerberifoliusKNApSAcK Database
Rohdea chinensisPlant
Rosa mutifloraKNApSAcK Database
Rourea santaloidesKNApSAcK Database
Rubia cordifoliaPlant
Rubia cordifolia L.KNApSAcK Database
Rubia wallichiana DECNEKNApSAcK Database
Rubia yunnanensisKNApSAcK Database
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus ellipticusKNApSAcK Database
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilis
Ruellia tuberosaKNApSAcK Database
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Rumex patientiaPlant
Rumex thyrsiflorusPlant
Ruppia maritimaKNApSAcK Database
Sabal causiarumKNApSAcK Database
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix babylonicaPlant
Salix cheilophilaPlant
Salix denticulataPlant
Salix pulchra
Salvia aegyptiacaKNApSAcK Database
Salvia aethiopisKNApSAcK Database
Salvia amplexicaulis Lam.KNApSAcK Database
Salvia canariensis L.KNApSAcK Database
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia kronenburgiiKNApSAcK Database
Salvia multicaulisKNApSAcK Database
Salvia nicolsonianaKNApSAcK Database
Salvia officinalisKNApSAcK Database
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Salvia syriaca L.KNApSAcK Database
Sambucus canadensisKNApSAcK Database
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.
Sambucus nigra.KNApSAcK Database
Sapium sebiferumKNApSAcK Database
Sargentodoxa cuneataKNApSAcK Database
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Saussurea lanicepsKNApSAcK Database
Saussurea muliensisKNApSAcK Database
Scabiosa soongoricaKNApSAcK Database
Schleichera oleosaKNApSAcK Database
Schleichera trijugaKNApSAcK Database
Schnabelia tetradontaKNApSAcK Database
Scleropyrum wallichianumKNApSAcK Database
Scorzonera hispanica
Scrophularia ningpoensisKNApSAcK Database
Secale cereale
Sechium edule
Senecio chionophilusKNApSAcK Database
Senecio viraviraKNApSAcK Database
Senna siameaPlant
Senna spectabilisPlant
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosa
Seseli tortuosum LBS.Eur.KNApSAcK Database
Severinia buxifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Sida rhombifoliaPlant
Sideritis argosphacelus var. spicataKNApSAcK Database
Sideritis candicans var.eriocephalaKNApSAcK Database
Sideritis discolorKNApSAcK Database
Sideritis kueglerianaKNApSAcK Database
Sideritis lotsyiKNApSAcK Database
Sideritis lotsyi var. mascaensisKNApSAcK Database
Sideritis solutaKNApSAcK Database
Sideritis tenoiKNApSAcK Database
Sinapis albaFooDB
Skimmia wallachiiKNApSAcK Database
Smilax chinaKNApSAcK Database
Solanum chacoense Bitt.KNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicum
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum nigrumPlant
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Solanum tuberosum L.KNApSAcK Database
Solanum virginianumPlant
Sophora japonica L.KNApSAcK Database
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolor
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Spiraea formosanaKNApSAcK Database
Stemodia foliosaKNApSAcK Database
Strachybotrys alternans-
Strychnos dolychothyrsaKNApSAcK Database
Strychnos potatorumKNApSAcK Database
Symphytum tuberosumKNApSAcK Database
Symplocos racemosaKNApSAcK Database
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Syzygium nervosumPlant
Tabernaemontana catharinensisPlant
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Tamus communis L.KNApSAcK Database
Tanacetum longifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Taraxacum formosanumKNApSAcK Database
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Taxodium lanceolataKNApSAcK Database
Taxus baccataKNApSAcK Database
Taxus brevifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Taxus canadensisKNApSAcK Database
Taxus cuspidataKNApSAcK Database
Taxus floridanaKNApSAcK Database
Taxus maireiKNApSAcK Database
Taxus wallichianaKNApSAcK Database
Tephrosia purpureaKNApSAcK Database
Terminalia brasiliensisPlant
Terminalia fagifoliaPlant
Terminalia superbaKNApSAcK Database
Ternstroemia gymnantheraKNApSAcK Database
Tetracentron sinenseKNApSAcK Database
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thalassia hemprichiiKNApSAcK Database
Theobroma cacaoFooDB
Thevetia peruvianaKNApSAcK Database
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Thyrsanospermum diffusum-
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.FooDB
Tinospora crispaPlant
Toona ciliataKNApSAcK Database
Toona sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Tovomita brasiliensisKNApSAcK Database
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trametes VersicolorFungi
Tribulus terrestrisKNApSAcK Database
Trichilia estipulataKNApSAcK Database
Trichosanthes kirilowiiKNApSAcK Database
Trigonella foenum-graceumKNApSAcK Database
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Tripterygium hypoglaucumKNApSAcK Database
Triticum aestivumKNApSAcK Database
Triticum durum
Triticum spelta
Triticum spp.KNApSAcK Database
Triticum turanicum
Tupistra chinensisKNApSAcK Database
Turnera subulataPlant
Typha angustifolia
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Veratrum albumKNApSAcK Database
Verbena brasiliensis VELLKNApSAcK Database
Verbena officinalisPlant
Vernicia fordiiPlant
Veronica officinalisPlant
Veronica orchideaPlant
Veronica teucriumPlant
Viburnum edule
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungo
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
Virola surinamensisKNApSAcK Database
Viscum coloratumKNApSAcK Database
Vitellaria paradoxaFooDB
Vitex trifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Withania somniferaKNApSAcK Database
Xanthium strumariumKNApSAcK Database
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Xylopia aromaticaKNApSAcK Database
Xylopia brasiliensisKNApSAcK Database
Xylopia emarginataKNApSAcK Database
Zanthoxylum culantrilloKNApSAcK Database
Zanthoxylum integrifoliolumKNApSAcK Database
Zanthoxylum myriacanthumKNApSAcK Database
Zanthoxylum podocarpum Hemsl.KNApSAcK Database
Zanthoxylum simulansKNApSAcK Database
Zanthoxylum wutaienseKNApSAcK Database
Zea maysKNApSAcK Database
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber aromaticumKNApSAcK Database
Zingiber officinaleKNApSAcK Database
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Allomyces macrogynusKNApSAcK Database
Aspergillus oryzaeKNApSAcK Database
Aureoumbra lagunensisKNApSAcK Database
Candida sp.KNApSAcK Database
Candida utilisKNApSAcK Database
Coriolus versicolorKNApSAcK Database
Fusarium sporotrichioidesKNApSAcK Database
Glomus mosseaeKNApSAcK Database
Monascus pilosus BCRC38072KNApSAcK Database
Physarum polycephalumKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as stigmastanes and derivatives. These are sterol lipids with a structure based on the stigmastane skeleton, which consists of a cholestane moiety bearing an ethyl group at the carbon atom C24.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassStigmastanes and derivatives
Direct ParentStigmastanes and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • C24-propyl-sterol-skeleton
  • Stigmastane-skeleton
  • Triterpenoid
  • 3-hydroxy-delta-5-steroid
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 3-beta-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-beta-hydroxy-delta-5-steroid
  • Delta-5-steroid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point140 °CNot Available
Boiling Point498.00 to 501.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility10 mg/mLNot Available
LogP10.482 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.8e-05 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity129.77 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability54.21 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB006298
KNApSAcK IDC00023770
Chemspider ID192962
KEGG Compound IDC01753
BioCyc IDCPD-4143
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBeta-Sitosterol
PubChem Compound222284
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27693
Good Scents IDrw1223271
General References
  1. Rajaratnam RA, Gylling H, Miettinen TA: Independent association of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols with coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Apr;35(5):1185-91. [PubMed:10758959 ]
  2. Clayton PT, Bowron A, Mills KA, Massoud A, Casteels M, Milla PJ: Phytosterolemia in children with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestatic liver disease. Gastroenterology. 1993 Dec;105(6):1806-13. [PubMed:8253356 ]
  3. Nguyen LB, Salen G, Shefer S, Bullock J, Chen T, Tint GS, Chowdhary IR, Lerner S: Deficient ileal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in sitosterolemia: sitosterol is not a feedback inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol biosynthesis. Metabolism. 1994 Jul;43(7):855-9. [PubMed:8028508 ]
  4. Barthomeuf C, Grassi J, Demeule M, Fournier C, Boivin D, Beliveau R: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport function and reversion of MDR1 multidrug resistance by cnidiadin. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;56(2):173-81. Epub 2005 Apr 12. [PubMed:15824923 ]
  5. Fernandez ML, Vega-Lopez S: Efficacy and safety of sitosterol in the management of blood cholesterol levels. Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2005 Spring;23(1):57-70. [PubMed:15867948 ]
  6. Gylling H, Miettinen TA: The effect of plant stanol- and sterol-enriched foods on lipid metabolism, serum lipids and coronary heart disease. Ann Clin Biochem. 2005 Jul;42(Pt 4):254-63. [PubMed:15989725 ]
  7. Ling WH, Jones PJ: Dietary phytosterols: a review of metabolism, benefits and side effects. Life Sci. 1995;57(3):195-206. [PubMed:7596226 ]
  8. Stalenhoef AF, Hectors M, Demacker PN: Effect of plant sterol-enriched margarine on plasma lipids and sterols in subjects heterozygous for phytosterolaemia. J Intern Med. 2001 Feb;249(2):163-6. [PubMed:11240845 ]
  9. Siirtola A, Ketomaki A, Miettinen TA, Gylling H, Lehtimaki T, Holmberg C, Salo MK, Antikainen M: Cholesterol absorption and synthesis in pediatric kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2006 Feb 15;81(3):327-34. [PubMed:16477216 ]
  10. Nikkila K, Hockerstedt K, Miettinen TA: Liver transplantation modifies serum cholestanol, cholesterol precursor and plant sterol levels. Clin Chim Acta. 1992 Jun 30;208(3):205-18. [PubMed:1499139 ]
  11. Kabouche A, Boutaghane N, Kabouche Z, Seguin E, Tillequin F, Benlabed K: Components and antibacterial activity of the roots of Salvia jaminiana. Fitoterapia. 2005 Jul;76(5):450-2. [PubMed:15893885 ]
  12. Sviridov DD, Safonova IG, Nano JL, Pavlov MY, Rampal P, Repin VS, Smirnov VN: New model to study cholesterol uptake in the human intestine in vitro. J Lipid Res. 1993 Feb;34(2):331-9. [PubMed:8429265 ]
  13. Miwa K, Inazu A, Kobayashi J, Higashikata T, Nohara A, Kawashiri M, Katsuda S, Takata M, Koizumi J, Mabuchi H: ATP-binding cassette transporter G8 M429V polymorphism as a novel genetic marker of higher cholesterol absorption in hypercholesterolaemic Japanese subjects. Clin Sci (Lond). 2005 Aug;109(2):183-8. [PubMed:15816807 ]
  14. Madersbacher S, Schatzl G, Brossner C, Dreikorn K: [Phytotherapy for BPS. Which products can still be prescribed?]. Urologe A. 2005 May;44(5):513-20. [PubMed:15726313 ]
  15. Honda A, Salen G, Honda M, Batta AK, Tint GS, Xu G, Chen TS, Tanaka N, Shefer S: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity is inhibited by cholesterol and up-regulated by sitosterol in sitosterolemic fibroblasts. J Lab Clin Med. 2000 Feb;135(2):174-9. [PubMed:10695663 ]
  16. Bhattacharyya AK, Lopez LA: Absorbability of plant sterols and their distribution in rabbit tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1979 Jul 27;574(1):146-53. [PubMed:573140 ]
  17. Awad AB, Downie A, Fink CS, Kim U: Dietary phytosterol inhibits the growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells grown in SCID mice. Anticancer Res. 2000 Mar-Apr;20(2A):821-4. [PubMed:10810360 ]
  18. Miettinen TA, Railo M, Lepantalo M, Gylling H: Plant sterols in serum and in atherosclerotic plaques of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jun 7;45(11):1794-801. [PubMed:15936608 ]
  19. Kim BH, Lee YS, Kang KS: The mechanism of retinol-induced irritation and its application to anti-irritant development. Toxicol Lett. 2003 Dec 15;146(1):65-73. [PubMed:14615068 ]
  20. Calpe-Berdiel L, Escola-Gil JC, Ribas V, Navarro-Sastre A, Garces-Garces J, Blanco-Vaca F: Changes in intestinal and liver global gene expression in response to a phytosterol-enriched diet. Atherosclerosis. 2005 Jul;181(1):75-85. Epub 2005 Feb 12. [PubMed:15939057 ]
  21. Muti P, Awad AB, Schunemann H, Fink CS, Hovey K, Freudenheim JL, Wu YW, Bellati C, Pala V, Berrino F: A plant food-based diet modifies the serum beta-sitosterol concentration in hyperandrogenic postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2003 Dec;133(12):4252-5. [PubMed:14652381 ]
  22. Li JH, Awad AB, Fink CS, Wu YW, Trevisan M, Muti P: Measurement variability of plasma beta-sitosterol and campesterol, two new biomarkers for cancer prevention. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2001 Jun;10(3):245-9. [PubMed:11432711 ]
  23. Maguire L, Konoplyannikov M, Ford A, Maguire AR, O'Brien NM: Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of beta-sitosterol oxides and a cholesterol oxide, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, in cultured mammalian cells. Br J Nutr. 2003 Oct;90(4):767-75. [PubMed:13129445 ]
  24. Wilt TJ, MacDonald R, Ishani A: beta-sitosterol for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review. BJU Int. 1999 Jun;83(9):976-83. [PubMed:10368239 ]
  25. Awad AB, Roy R, Fink CS: Beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol, induces apoptosis and activates key caspases in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2003 Mar-Apr;10(2):497-500. [PubMed:12579296 ]