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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:38:38 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001012
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameL-Cystine
DescriptionCystine is an oxidized dimeric form of cysteine. It is formed by linking two cysteine residues via a disulfide bond (Cys-S-S-Cys) between the -SH groups. Cystine is found in high concentrations in digestive enzymes and in the cells of the immune system, skeletal and connective tissues, skin, and hair. Hair and skin are 10-14% cystine. Cystine is the preferred form of cysteine for the synthesis of glutathione in cells involved in the immune system (e.G. Macrophages and astrocytes). Lymphocytes and neurons prefer cysteine for glutathione production. Optimizing glutathione levels in macrophages and astrocytes with cystine allows these cells to provide cysteine to lymphocytes and neurons directly upon demand (Wikipedia).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(R,R)-3,3'-Dithiobis(2-aminopropanoic acid)ChEBI
(R-(R*,r*))-3,3'-dithiobis(2-aminopropanoic acid)ChEBI
3,3'-Dithiobis-L-alanineChEBI
beta,Beta'-diamino-beta,beta'-dicarboxydiethyl disulfideChEBI
beta,Beta'-dithiodialanineChEBI
Bis(beta-amino-beta-carboxyethyl) disulfideChEBI
e921ChEBI
L-alpha-Diamino-beta-dithiolactic acidChEBI
L-DicysteineChEBI
Oxidized L-cysteineChEBI
(R,R)-3,3'-Dithiobis(2-aminopropanoate)Generator
(R-(R*,r*))-3,3'-dithiobis(2-aminopropanoate)Generator
b,Beta'-diamino-b,beta'-dicarboxydiethyl disulfideGenerator
b,Beta'-diamino-b,beta'-dicarboxydiethyl disulphideGenerator
beta,Beta'-diamino-beta,beta'-dicarboxydiethyl disulphideGenerator
Β,beta'-diamino-β,beta'-dicarboxydiethyl disulfideGenerator
Β,beta'-diamino-β,beta'-dicarboxydiethyl disulphideGenerator
b,Beta'-dithiodialanineGenerator
Β,beta'-dithiodialanineGenerator
Bis(b-amino-b-carboxyethyl) disulfideGenerator
Bis(b-amino-b-carboxyethyl) disulphideGenerator
Bis(beta-amino-beta-carboxyethyl) disulphideGenerator
Bis(β-amino-β-carboxyethyl) disulfideGenerator
Bis(β-amino-β-carboxyethyl) disulphideGenerator
L-a-Diamino-b-dithiolactateGenerator
L-a-Diamino-b-dithiolactic acidGenerator
L-alpha-Diamino-beta-dithiolactateGenerator
L-Α-diamino-β-dithiolactateGenerator
L-Α-diamino-β-dithiolactic acidGenerator
(-)-CystineHMDB
(R-(R*,r*))-3,3'-dithiobisHMDB
2-Amino-3-(2-amino-2-carboxy-ethyl)disulfanyl-propanoateHMDB
2-Amino-3-(2-amino-2-carboxy-ethyl)disulfanyl-propanoic acidHMDB
2-Amino-3-[(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)dithio]propanoateHMDB
2-Amino-3-[(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)dithio]propanoic acidHMDB
3,3'-DithiobisHMDB
3,3'-Dithiobis[2-amino-[R-(r*,r*)]-propanoateHMDB
3,3'-Dithiobis[2-amino-[R-(r*,r*)]-propanoic acidHMDB
3,3'-DithiodialanineHMDB
b,B'-diamino-b,b'-dicarboxydiethyl disulfideHMDB
b,B'-dithiodialanineHMDB
beta,Beta'-dithiobisalanineHMDB
Bis(b-amino-beta-carboxyethyl) disulfideHMDB
Cysteine disulfideHMDB
CystinHMDB
CystineHMDB
Cystine acidHMDB
D(+)-3,3'-Dithiobis(2-aminopropanoateHMDB
D(+)-3,3'-Dithiobis(2-aminopropanoic acidHMDB
DicysteineHMDB
GelucystineHMDB
L-(-)-CystineHMDB
L-Cysteine disulfideHMDB
L-CystinHMDB
[R-(R*,r*)]-3,3'-dithiobisHMDB
L CystineHMDB
Copper cystinateHMDB
L-CystineKEGG
Chemical FormulaC6H12N2O4S2
Average Mass240.3000 Da
Monoisotopic Mass240.02385 Da
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-amino-3-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]disulfanyl}propanoic acid
Traditional NameL-cystine
CAS Registry Number56-89-3
SMILES
N[C@@H](CSSC[C@H](N)C(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12N2O4S2/c7-3(5(9)10)1-13-14-2-4(8)6(11)12/h3-4H,1-2,7-8H2,(H,9,10)(H,11,12)/t3-,4-/m0/s1
InChI KeyLEVWYRKDKASIDU-IMJSIDKUSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Abramis bramaFooDB
AcipenserFooDB
AcipenseridaeFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Alosa sapidissimaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anarhichas lupusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
AnguillaFooDB
AnguilliformesFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Anoplopoma fimbriaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Antirrhinum majusLOTUS Database
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Aplodinotus grunniensFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaLOTUS Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Archosargus probatocephalusFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemia salinaLOTUS Database
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
AstacideaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Belone beloneFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
BivalviaFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
BrachyuraFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Brosme brosmeFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
BuccinidaeFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Callinectes sapidusFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cancer magisterFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
CarideaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Catostomus commersoniiFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chanos chanosFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chionoecetes opilioFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
CichlidaeFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Claviceps purpureaLOTUS Database
Clupea harengus harengusFooDB
Clupea pallasiiFooDB
ClupeinaeFooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
CoregonusFooDB
Coregonus artediFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crassostrea gigasFooDB
Crassostrea virginicaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
CyclopteridaeFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Cyprinus carpioFooDB
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
    • David M. Alabran, and Ahmed F. Mabrouk. Carrot flavor. Sugars and free nitrogenous compounds in f...
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
EngraulidaeFooDB
Engraulis encrasicolusFooDB
EpinephelusFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Esox luciusFooDB
EucheumaFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesLOTUS Database
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
GadiformesFooDB
GadusFooDB
Gadus macrocephalusFooDB
Gadus morhuaFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
GastropodaFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
HippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus hippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus stenolepisFooDB
Homarus americanusFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hoplostethus atlanticusFooDB
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Ictalurus punctatusFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Katsuwonus pelamisFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Laburnum anagyroidesLOTUS Database
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
LaminariaFooDB
Leiostomus xanthurusFooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
Lepomis gibbosusFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Limanda limandaFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Lophius piscatoriusFooDB
Lopholatilus chamaeleonticepsFooDB
Lota lotaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
LutjanidaeFooDB
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Melanogrammus aeglefinusFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Merlangius merlangusFooDB
Micromesistius poutassouFooDB
Micropogonias undulatusFooDB
Microstomus kittFooDB
Molva molvaFooDB
Morchella crassipesLOTUS Database
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
Morone saxatilisFooDB
Mugil cephalusFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
MytilidaeFooDB
Mytilus edulisFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
NephropidaeFooDB
Nephrops norvegicusFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Octopus vulgarisFooDB
OdocoileusFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
Oncorhynchus gorbuschaFooDB
Oncorhynchus ketaFooDB
Oncorhynchus kisutchFooDB
Oncorhynchus mykissFooDB
Oncorhynchus nerkaFooDB
Oncorhynchus tshawytschaFooDB
Ophiodon elongatusFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
OsmeridaeFooDB
Osmerus mordaxFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
PalinuridaeFooDB
Panax ginsengLOTUS Database
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
PapaverFooDB
Paralithodes camtschaticusFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
PectinidaeFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Peprilus triacanthusFooDB
PerciformesFooDB
PercoideiFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
PleuronectidaeFooDB
PleuronectiformesFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
PollachiusFooDB
Pollachius pollachiusFooDB
Pomatomus saltatrixFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
RanidaeFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Reinhardtius hippoglossoidesFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Saccharina japonicaFooDB
Salmo salarFooDB
Salmo trutta forma truttaFooDB
SalmonidaeFooDB
SalvelinusFooDB
Salvelinus namaycushFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Sander luciopercaFooDB
Scomberomorus cavallaFooDB
Scomberomorus maculatusFooDB
ScombridaeFooDB
Scophthalmus maximusFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
SebastesFooDB
Sebastes alutusFooDB
Sebastes viviparusFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Senna obtusifoliaLOTUS Database
SepiidaeFooDB
Seriola lalandiFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
SiluriformesFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
SoleidaeFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
SpirulinaFooDB
SqualiformesFooDB
Squalus acanthiasFooDB
Stenodus leucichthysFooDB
Stenotomus chrysopsFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
TeuthidaFooDB
ThunnusFooDB
Thunnus albacaresFooDB
Thunnus thynnusFooDB
Thymus transcaucasicusLOTUS Database
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Trachinotus carolinusFooDB
Trachurus symmetricusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Trisopterus esmarkiiFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Undaria pinnatifidaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
Virola surinamensisFooDB
Vitellaria paradoxaFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xiphias gladiusFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zoarces americanusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-cysteine-s-conjugates. L-cysteine-S-conjugates are compounds containing L-cysteine where the thio-group is conjugated.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-cysteine-S-conjugates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-cysteine-s-conjugate
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic disulfide
  • Dialkyldisulfide
  • Amino acid
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point260.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point467.00 to 469.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility0.19 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-5.08Chmelík, J., Hudecek, J., Putyera, K., Makovicka, J., Kalous, V., & Chmelíková, J. (1991). Characterization of the hydrophobic properties of amino acids on the basis of their partition and distribution coefficients in the 1-octanol-water system. Collection of Czechoslovak chemical communications, 56(10), 2030-2041.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility16.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.2ALOGPS
logP-5.9ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.56ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area126.64 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity54.87 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22.77 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000192
DrugBank IDDB00138
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012672
KNApSAcK IDC00001352
Chemspider ID60997
KEGG Compound IDC00491
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID35134
Wikipedia LinkCystine
METLIN ID5207
PubChem Compound67678
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16283
Good Scents IDrw1253521
References
General References
  1. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [PubMed:2026685 ]
  2. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [PubMed:12834252 ]
  3. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [PubMed:14992292 ]
  4. Rumpold H, Mascher K, Untergasser G, Plas E, Hermann M, Berger P: Trans-differentiation of prostatic stromal cells leads to decreased glycoprotein hormone alpha production. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Nov;87(11):5297-303. [PubMed:12414905 ]
  5. Alexander S, Ison C: Evaluation of commercial kits for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Sep;54(Pt 9):827-31. [PubMed:16091433 ]
  6. Terada T, Maeda H, Okamoto K, Nishinaka T, Mizoguchi T, Nishihara T: Modulation of glutathione S-transferase activity by a thiol/disulfide exchange reaction and involvement of thioltransferase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 Jan;300(1):495-500. [PubMed:8424686 ]
  7. Sonies BC, Almajid P, Kleta R, Bernardini I, Gahl WA: Swallowing dysfunction in 101 patients with nephropathic cystinosis: benefit of long-term cysteamine therapy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2005 May;84(3):137-46. [PubMed:15879904 ]
  8. Mogil'naia GM, Shubich MG: [Comparison of the histochemical bases of epidermis differentiation in vertebrates]. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol. 1976 Mar;70(3):46-52. [PubMed:1275714 ]
  9. Peters T, Thaete C, Wolf S, Popp A, Sedlmeier R, Grosse J, Nehls MC, Russ A, Schlueter V: A mouse model for cystinuria type I. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Sep 1;12(17):2109-20. [PubMed:12923163 ]
  10. Park M, Helip-Wooley A, Thoene J: Lysosomal cystine storage augments apoptosis in cultured human fibroblasts and renal tubular epithelial cells. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Dec;13(12):2878-87. [PubMed:12444206 ]
  11. Rossi S, Herrine SK, Navarro VJ: Cystinosis as a cause of noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Jul;50(7):1372-5. [PubMed:16047489 ]
  12. Sakhaee K: Pathogenesis and medical management of cystinuria. Semin Nephrol. 1996 Sep;16(5):435-47. [PubMed:8890399 ]
  13. Orakzai N, Hanbury DC, Farrington K: Screening for biochemical abnormalities in urolithiasis patients. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2004 Apr-Jun;16(2):60-3. [PubMed:15455621 ]
  14. Mitchell BF, Chibbar R: Synthesis and metabolism of oxytocin in late gestation in human decidua. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1995;395:365-80. [PubMed:8713992 ]
  15. Behr T, Becker W, Hannappel E, Goldenberg DM, Wolf F: Targeting of liver metastases of colorectal cancer with IgG, F(ab')2, and Fab' anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies labeled with 99mTc: the role of metabolism and kinetics. Cancer Res. 1995 Dec 1;55(23 Suppl):5777s-5785s. [PubMed:7493346 ]
  16. Coe FL, Evan A, Worcester E: Kidney stone disease. J Clin Invest. 2005 Oct;115(10):2598-608. [PubMed:16200192 ]
  17. Kubilus J, MacDonald MJ, Baden HP: Epidermal proteins of cultured human and bovine keratinocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1979 Jun 19;578(2):484-92. [PubMed:486533 ]
  18. Tezuka T, Takahashi M: The cystine-rich envelope protein from human epidermal stratum corneum cells. J Invest Dermatol. 1987 Jan;88(1):47-51. [PubMed:3794387 ]
  19. Worcester EM, Coe FL, Evan AP, Parks JH: Reduced renal function and benefits of treatment in cystinuria vs other forms of nephrolithiasis. BJU Int. 2006 Jun;97(6):1285-90. [PubMed:16686727 ]
  20. Allen JW, Shanker G, Tan KH, Aschner M: The consequences of methylmercury exposure on interactive functions between astrocytes and neurons. Neurotoxicology. 2002 Dec;23(6):755-9. [PubMed:12520765 ]