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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-01 17:45:32 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000970
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common Namegamma-Aminobutyric acid
DescriptionGamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous systems of widely divergent species, including humans. It is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. In vertebrates, GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain. It acts by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons. This binding causes the opening of ion channels to allow either the flow of negatively-charged chloride ions into the cell or positively-charged potassium ions out of the cell. This will typically result in a negative change in the transmembrane potential, usually causing hyperpolarization. Three general classes of GABA receptor are known (PMID: 10561820 ). These include GABA-A and GABA-C ionotropic receptors, which are ion channels themselves, and GABA-B metabotropic receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors that open ion channels via intermediaries known as G proteins (PMID: 10561820 ). Activation of the GABA-B receptor by GABA causes neuronal membrane hyperpolarization and a resultant inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In addition to binding sites for GABA, the GABA-A receptor has binding sites for benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and neurosteroids. GABA-A receptors are coupled to chloride ion channels. Therefore, activation of the GABA-A receptor induces increased inward chloride ion flux, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal inhibition (PMID: 10561820 ). After release into the synapse, free GABA that does not bind to either the GABA-A or GABA-B receptor complexes can be taken up by neurons and glial cells. Four different GABA membrane transporter proteins (GAT-1, GAT-2, GAT-3, and BGT-1), which differ in their distribution in the CNS, are believed to mediate the uptake of synaptic GABA into neurons and glial cells. The GABA-A receptor subtype regulates neuronal excitability and rapid changes in fear arousal, such as anxiety, panic, and the acute stress response (PMID: 10561820 ). Drugs that stimulate GABA-A receptors, such as the benzodiazepines and barbiturates, have anxiolytic and anti-seizure effects via GABA-A-mediated reduction of neuronal excitability, which effectively raises the seizure threshold. GABA-A antagonists produce convulsions in animals and there is decreased GABA-A receptor binding in a positron emission tomography (PET) study of patients with panic disorder. Neurons that produce GABA as their output are called GABAergic neurons and have chiefly inhibitory action at receptors in the vertebrate. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a typical example of inhibitory CNS GABAergic cells. GABA has been shown to have excitatory roles in the vertebrate, most notably in the developing cortex. Organisms synthesize GABA from glutamate using the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor (PMID: 12467378 ). It is worth noting that this involves converting the principal excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) into the principal inhibitory one (GABA). Drugs that act as agonists of GABA receptors (known as GABA analogs or GABAergic drugs), or increase the available amount of GABA typically have relaxing, anti-anxiety, and anti-convulsive effects. GABA is found to be deficient in cerebrospinal fluid and the brain in many studies of experimental and human epilepsy. Benzodiazepines (such as Valium) are useful in status epilepticus because they act on GABA receptors. GABA increases in the brain after administration of many seizure medications. Hence, GABA is clearly an antiepileptic nutrient. Inhibitors of GAM metabolism can also produce convulsions. Spasticity and involuntary movement syndromes, such as Parkinson's, Friedreich's ataxia, tardive dyskinesia, and Huntington's chorea, are all marked by low GABA when amino acid levels are studied. Trials of 2 to 3 g of GABA given orally have been effective in various epilepsy and spasticity syndromes. Agents that elevate GABA are also useful in lowering hypertension. Three grams orally have been effective in controlling blood pressure. GABA is decreased in various encephalopathies. GABA can reduce appetite and is decreased in hypoglycemics. GABA reduces blood sugar in diabetics. Chronic brain syndromes can also be marked by deficiencies of GABA. Vitamin B6, manganese, taurine, and lysine can increase both GABA synthesis and effects, while aspartic acid and glutamic acid probably inhibit GABA effects. Low plasma GABA has been reported in some depressed patients and may be a useful trait marker for mood disorders. GABA has an important role in embryonic development, especially facial development, as substantiated by the association of a cleft palate in transgenic mice deficient in GAD67 (glutamate decarboxylase). A recent Japanese population study reported linkage in patients with a nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without a cleft palate and specific GAD67 haplotypes (PMID: 23842532 ). Unusually high levels of GABA (especially in the brain) can be toxic and GABA can function as both a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin. A neurotoxin is a compound that damages the brain and/or nerve tissue. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of GABA are associated with at least five inborn errors of metabolism, including D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria/succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, GABA-transaminase deficiency, homocarnosinosis, and hyper beta-alaninemia. Nearly all of these conditions are associated with seizures, hypotonia, intellectual deficits, macrocephaly, encephalopathy, and other serious neurological or neuromuscular problems. Increased levels of GABA seem to alter the function of the GABA-B receptor, which may play a role in the tonic-clonic seizures that are often seen in patients with the above disorders.
4-Aminobutanoic acidChEBI
4-Aminobutyric acidChEBI
gamma-Amino-N-butyric acidChEBI
gamma-Aminobutanoic acidChEBI
Omega-aminobutyric acidChEBI
Piperidic acidChEBI
Piperidinic acidChEBI
g-AMINO-butanoic acidGenerator
Γ-amino-butanoic acidGenerator
g-Amino-N-butyric acidGenerator
Γ-amino-N-butyric acidGenerator
g-Aminobutanoic acidGenerator
Γ-aminobutanoic acidGenerator
g-Aminobutyric acidGenerator
Γ-aminobutyric acidGenerator
gamma AminobutyrateHMDB
gamma Aminobutyric acidHMDB
W-Aminobutyric acidHMDB
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, calcium salt (2:1)HMDB
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, hydrochlorideHMDB
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, zinc salt (2:1)HMDB
4 Aminobutanoic acidHMDB
4 Aminobutyric acidHMDB
Lithium gabaHMDB
gamma Aminobutyric acid, monolithium saltHMDB
gamma Aminobutyric acid, monosodium saltHMDB
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, monolithium saltHMDB
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, monosodium saltHMDB
Acid, hydrochloride gamma-aminobutyricHMDB
GABA, lithiumHMDB
Hydrochloride gamma-aminobutyric acidHMDB
gamma Aminobutyric acid, hydrochlorideHMDB
gamma-Aminobutyric acidKEGG
Chemical FormulaC4H9NO2
Average Mass103.1198 Da
Monoisotopic Mass103.06333 Da
IUPAC Name4-aminobutanoic acid
Traditional Namegamma(amino)-butyric acid
CAS Registry Number56-12-2
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-01View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-01View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)varshavi.d26@gmail.comNot AvailableNot Available2021-08-07View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica gigasLOTUS Database
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Antirrhinum majusLOTUS Database
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Astragalus lehmannianusLOTUS Database
Astragalus membranaceusLOTUS Database
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaKNApSAcK Database
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bergera koenegii-
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea L. ssp. BotrytisKNApSAcK Database
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumKNApSAcK Database
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papayaKNApSAcK Database
Carica papaya L.Plant
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
Casimiroa edulisLOTUS Database
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaKNApSAcK Database
Catha edulisLOTUS Database
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiLOTUS Database
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Claviceps purpureaLOTUS Database
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cycas revolutaLOTUS Database
Cycas rumphiiLOTUS Database
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Datura stramoniumLOTUS Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hansenia weberbauerianaLOTUS Database
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hypholoma fasciculareLOTUS Database
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lemna aequinoctialisLOTUS Database
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Litoria verreauxiiLOTUS Database
Lotus corniculatusLOTUS Database
Lotus glaberLOTUS Database
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
Lunaria annuaLOTUS Database
Lupinus albusFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
Monascus pilosusLOTUS Database
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
Morus australisLOTUS Database
Morus nigraFooDB
Murraya paniculataKNApSAcK Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pandanus amaryllifoliusKNApSAcK Database
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Paris fargesiiLOTUS Database
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus spp.KNApSAcK Database
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Phytolacca japonicaLOTUS Database
Picea pungensLOTUS Database
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Pinus ponderosaLOTUS Database
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pisum spp.KNApSAcK Database
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Populus tremulaLOTUS Database
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Pseudostellaria heterophyllaLOTUS Database
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Puccinia graminisLOTUS Database
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
Ramalina fraxineaLOTUS Database
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Rhodiola kirilowiiKNApSAcK Database
Rhodiola roseaKNApSAcK Database
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumKNApSAcK Database
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaKNApSAcK Database
Stangeria eriopusLOTUS Database
Streptomyces lincolnensisLOTUS Database
Struthio camelusFooDB
Styphnolobium japonicumLOTUS Database
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Synechococcus elongatusLOTUS Database
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valeriana officinalisLOTUS Database
Valerianella locustaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vicia spp.KNApSAcK Database
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Withania somniferaLOTUS Database
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea maysLOTUS Database
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coli K12KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Phoma medicaginisKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gamma amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the gamma carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGamma amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Gamma amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point203 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1300 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.17Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility365 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity25.46 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.62 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB02530
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB030489
KNApSAcK IDC00001337
Chemspider ID116
KEGG Compound IDC00334
BiGG ID34652
Wikipedia LinkGamma-Aminobutyric_acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound119
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16865
Good Scents IDrw1835611
General References
  1. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  2. Zarnowska ED, Pearce RA, Saad AA, Perouansky M: The gamma-subunit governs the susceptibility of recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors to block by the nonimmobilizer 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (F6, 2N). Anesth Analg. 2005 Aug;101(2):401-6, table of contents. [PubMed:16037152 ]
  3. Levy LM, Levy-Reis I, Fujii M, Dalakas MC: Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid changes in stiff-person syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jun;62(6):970-4. [PubMed:15956168 ]
  4. Hasler G, Neumeister A, van der Veen JW, Tumonis T, Bain EE, Shen J, Drevets WC, Charney DS: Normal prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in remitted depressed subjects determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Dec 15;58(12):969-73. Epub 2005 Jul 25. [PubMed:16043137 ]
  5. Denda M, Inoue K, Inomata S, Denda S: gamma-Aminobutyric acid (A) receptor agonists accelerate cutaneous barrier recovery and prevent epidermal hyperplasia induced by barrier disruption. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 Nov;119(5):1041-7. [PubMed:12445190 ]
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