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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2006-02-28 12:15:37 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 23:58:36 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000929
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameTheophylline
DescriptionTheophylline, also known as quibron TSR or uniphyl, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety. Theophylline also binds to the adenosine A2B receptor and blocks adenosine mediated bronchoconstriction. Theophylline is a drug which is used for the treatment of the symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction associated with chronic asthma and other chronic lung diseases, such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Theophylline is marketed under several brand names such as Theophylline and Theochron, and it is indicated mainly for asthma, bronchospasm, and COPD. Within humans, theophylline participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, theophylline and formaldehyde can be biosynthesized from caffeine; which is mediated by the enzymes cytochrome P450 1A2, cytochrome P450 3A4, cytochrome P450 2C8, cytochrome P450 2C9, and cytochrome P450 2E1. In addition, theophylline can be converted into 1-methylxanthine and formaldehyde; which is mediated by the enzyme cytochrome P450 1A2. In humans, theophylline is involved in caffeine metabolism. Theophylline is a bitter tasting compound. Outside of the human body, Theophylline is found, on average, in the highest concentration within cocoa beans and tea. Theophylline has also been detected, but not quantified in a few different foods, such as arabica coffee, lemons, and pummelo. This could make theophylline a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Theophylline is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,3-Dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dioneChEBI
1,3-DimethylxanthineChEBI
ElixophyllinChEBI
RespbidChEBI
Theo-durChEBI
TheolairChEBI
TheophyllinChEBI
Theophylline anhydrousChEBI
UniphylChEBI
Quibron-tKegg
Theo-24Kegg
Theodur gKegg
AccurbronHMDB, MeSH
Acet-theocinHMDB
AerolateHMDB, MeSH
Aerolate IIIHMDB
Aerolate SRHMDB
AminophyllineHMDB
AquaphyllinHMDB, MeSH
ArmophyllineHMDB, MeSH
AsbronHMDB
AsmaxHMDB
AustynHMDB
BronkodylHMDB, MeSH
Bronkodyl SRHMDB
Choledyl saHMDB
Constant-THMDB, MeSH
DiphyllinHMDB
DoraphyllinHMDB
DuraphylHMDB
Dyspne-inhalHMDB
ElixexHMDB
ElixiconHMDB
ElixominHMDB
Elixophyllin SRHMDB
ElixophyllineHMDB
EuphyllineHMDB
EuphylongHMDB, MeSH
LabidHMDB
LanophyllinHMDB
LiquophyllineHMDB
LiquoriceHMDB
MaphyllineHMDB
MedaphyllinHMDB
NuelinHMDB, MeSH
OptiphyllinHMDB
ParkophyllinHMDB
PseudotheophyllineHMDB
Quibron t/srHMDB
Quibron-t/srHMDB
slo-BidHMDB
slo-PhyllinHMDB, MeSH
SolosinHMDB
Somophyllin-CRTHMDB
Somophyllin-DFHMDB
Somophyllin-THMDB, MeSH
Spophyllin retardHMDB
SustaireHMDB, MeSH
SynophylateHMDB, MeSH
Synophylate-l.a. cenulesHMDB
T-PhylHMDB
TefaminHMDB
TeofilinaHMDB
TeofyllaminHMDB
TeolairHMDB
TheacitinHMDB
Theal tabl.HMDB
Theal tabletsHMDB
theo-Dur-sprinkleHMDB
TheobidHMDB, MeSH
Theobid jr.HMDB
TheochronHMDB
TheocinHMDB, MeSH
Theoclair-SRHMDB
Theoclear 80HMDB
Theoclear l.a.-130HMDB
Theoclear laHMDB
Theoclear-200HMDB
Theoclear-80HMDB
TheocontinHMDB
TheodelHMDB
TheofolHMDB
TheogradHMDB
Theolair-SRHMDB
TheolixHMDB, MeSH
TheolixirHMDB
Theona PHMDB
TheophylHMDB
Theophyl-225HMDB
Theophyl-SRHMDB
TheophylineHMDB
Theophylline-SRHMDB
Theostat 80HMDB
TheoventHMDB, MeSH
Uni-durHMDB
UnifylHMDB
UniphyllinHMDB, MeSH
XanthiumHMDB
XantiventHMDB
AerobinMeSH, HMDB
BronchoparatMeSH, HMDB
Glycine theophyllinateMeSH, HMDB
Nuelin s.a.MeSH, HMDB
slo PhyllinMeSH, HMDB
SloPhyllinMeSH, HMDB
Somophyllin TMeSH, HMDB
Theo24MeSH, HMDB
Theoconfin continuousMeSH, HMDB
TheoniteMeSH, HMDB
CT Arzneimittel brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateMeSH, HMDB
Von CT, theoMeSH, HMDB
Mundipharma brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateMeSH, HMDB
Quibron T SRMeSH, HMDB
Quibron T-SRMeSH, HMDB
Sodium glycinate, theophyllineMeSH, HMDB
theo 24MeSH, HMDB
Theophyllinate, glycineMeSH, HMDB
Theophylline sodium glycinateMeSH, HMDB
TheospanMeSH, HMDB
UniphyllineMeSH, HMDB
CT-Arzneimittel brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateMeSH, HMDB
ConstantTMeSH, HMDB
Fameasan brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateMeSH, HMDB
LodraneMeSH, HMDB
MonospanMeSH, HMDB
Quibron TSRMeSH, HMDB
TheodurMeSH, HMDB
TheonMeSH, HMDB
TheopekMeSH, HMDB
TheostatMeSH, HMDB
CT, theo VonMeSH, HMDB
theo Von CTMeSH, HMDB
1,3 DimethylxanthineMeSH, HMDB
3,7-dihydro-1,3-Dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dioneMeSH, HMDB
Afonilum retardMeSH, HMDB
Anhydrous, theophyllineMeSH, HMDB
Constant TMeSH, HMDB
Fujisawa brand OF theophylline sodium glycinateMeSH, HMDB
Glycinate, theophylline sodiumMeSH, HMDB
SomophyllinTMeSH, HMDB
theo DurMeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H8N4O2
Average Mass180.1640 Da
Monoisotopic Mass180.06473 Da
IUPAC Name1,3-dimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Nametheophylline
CAS Registry Number58-55-9
SMILES
CN1C2=C(NC=N2)C(=O)N(C)C1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H8N4O2/c1-10-5-4(8-3-9-5)6(12)11(2)7(10)13/h3H,1-2H3,(H,8,9)
InChI KeyZFXYFBGIUFBOJW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 90 MHz, DMSO-d6, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 15.09 MHz, DMSO-d6, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Camellia assamicaKNApSAcK Database
Camellia irrawadiensisiaKNApSAcK Database
Camellia kissiKNApSAcK Database
Camellia ptilophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Camellia sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Camellia taliensisKNApSAcK Database
Camellia theaKNApSAcK Database
Camellia toliensisKNApSAcK Database
Citrus limonKNApSAcK Database
Citrus maximaKNApSAcK Database
Citrus paradisiKNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabicaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea canephoraKNApSAcK Database
Coffea dewevreiKNApSAcK Database
Coffea eugeniodesKNApSAcK Database
Coffea kianjavatensisKNApSAcK Database
Coffea libericaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea racemosaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea salvatrixKNApSAcK Database
Cola sp.KNApSAcK Database
Ilex paraguariensiKNApSAcK Database
Ilex paraguariensisKNApSAcK Database
Paullinia cupanaKNApSAcK Database
Paullinia trifoliataKNApSAcK Database
Theobroma cacao L.KNApSAcK Database
Theobroma grandiflorumKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentXanthines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthine
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purinone
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Lactam
  • Urea
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point273 °CNot Available
Boiling Point196.00 to 197.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility7.36 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP-0.02HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility22.9 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.26ALOGPS
logP-0.77ChemAxon
logS-0.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area69.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity44.93 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.86 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
External Links
HMDB IDHMDB0001889
DrugBank IDDB00277
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000453
KNApSAcK IDC00001510
Chemspider ID2068
KEGG Compound IDC07130
BioCyc IDCPD-12479
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTheophylline
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2153
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28177
Good Scents IDrw1548121
References
General References
  1. Bailey DN: Relative binding of acetaminophen, lidocaine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, quinidine, and theophylline to human tissues in vitro. J Anal Toxicol. 1997 Jan-Feb;21(1):1-4. [PubMed:9013284 ]
  2. Bath PM: Theophylline, aminophylline, caffeine and analogues for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD000211. [PubMed:15266427 ]
  3. Yasui K, Agematsu K, Shinozaki K, Hokibara S, Nagumo H, Yamada S, Kobayashi N, Komiyama A: Effects of theophylline on human eosinophil functions: comparative study with neutrophil functions. J Leukoc Biol. 2000 Aug;68(2):194-200. [PubMed:10947063 ]
  4. Gerbershagen MU, Fiege M, Weisshorn R, Kolodzie K, Wappler F: [Theophylline induces contractures in porcine skeletal muscle preparations with the disposition to malignant hyperthermia]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2004 Mar;39(3):147-52. [PubMed:15042504 ]
  5. Mahomed AG, Theron AJ, Anderson R, Feldman C: Anti-oxidative effects of theophylline on human neutrophils involve cyclic nucleotides and protein kinase A. Inflammation. 1998 Dec;22(6):545-57. [PubMed:9824770 ]
  6. Andreas S, Reiter H, Luthje L, Delekat A, Grunewald RW, Hasenfuss G, Somers VK: Differential effects of theophylline on sympathetic excitation, hemodynamics, and breathing in congestive heart failure. Circulation. 2004 Oct 12;110(15):2157-62. Epub 2004 Oct 4. [PubMed:15466632 ]
  7. Yano Y, Yoshida M, Hoshino S, Inoue K, Kida H, Yanagita M, Takimoto T, Hirata H, Kijima T, Kumagai T, Osaki T, Tachibana I, Kawase I: Anti-fibrotic effects of theophylline on lung fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Mar 17;341(3):684-90. Epub 2006 Jan 18. [PubMed:16430859 ]
  8. Mohiuddin AA, Bath FJ, Bath PM: Theophylline, aminophylline, caffeine and analogues for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000211. [PubMed:10796327 ]
  9. Mehta R, Weinberger B, Usmani SS, Wapnir RA, Harper RG: Theophylline alters neutrophil function in preterm infants. Biol Neonate. 2002;81(3):176-81. [PubMed:11937723 ]
  10. Benoehr P, Krueth P, Bokemeyer C, Grenz A, Osswald H, Hartmann JT: Nephroprotection by theophylline in patients with cisplatin chemotherapy: a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 Feb;16(2):452-8. Epub 2004 Dec 8. [PubMed:15590762 ]
  11. Spoelstra FM, Berends C, Dijkhuizen B, de Monchy JG, Kauffman HF: Effect of theophylline on CD11b and L-selectin expression and density of eosinophils and neutrophils in vitro. Eur Respir J. 1998 Sep;12(3):585-91. [PubMed:9762784 ]
  12. Teplinskaia LE, Filichkina NS, Matevosova KS: [Efficiency of treatment of uveitis with the drug superlymph]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2005 Jul-Aug;121(4):22-6. [PubMed:16223038 ]
  13. Yoshiike T, Aikawa Y, Sindhvananda J, Suto H, Nishimura K, Kawamoto T, Ogawa H: Skin barrier defect in atopic dermatitis: increased permeability of the stratum corneum using dimethyl sulfoxide and theophylline. J Dermatol Sci. 1993 Apr;5(2):92-6. [PubMed:8357787 ]