Np mrd loader

You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on NP-MRD.
Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-20 20:28:29 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000923
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameD-Galactose
DescriptionD-Galactose is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. D-Galactose is an energy-providing nutrient and also a necessary basic substrate for the biosynthesis of many macromolecules in the body. Metabolic pathways for D-Galactose are important not only for the provision of these pathways but also for the prevention of D-Galactose and D-Galactose metabolite accumulation. The main source of D-Galactose is lactose in the milk of mammals, but it can also be found in some fruits and vegetables. Utilization of D-Galactose in all living cells is initiated by the phosphorylation of the hexose by the enzyme galactokinase (E.C. 2.7.1.6) (GALK) to form D-Galactose-1-phosphate. In the presence of D-Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (E.C. 2.7.7.12) (GALT) D-Galactose-1-phosphate is exchanged with glucose-1-phosphate in UDP-glucose to form UDP-galactose. Glucose-1-phosphate will then enter the glycolytic pathway for energy production. Deficiency of the enzyme GALT in galactosemic patients leads to the accumulation of D-Galactose-1-phosphate. Classic galactosemia-a term that denotes the presence of D-Galactose in the blood is the rare inborn error of D-Galactose metabolism, diagnosed by the deficiency of the second enzyme of the D-Galactose assimilation pathway, GALT, which, in turn, is caused by mutations at the GALT gene. (PMID: 15256214 , 11020650 , 10408771 ). Galactose in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of milk.
Structure
Data?1628564082
Synonyms
ValueSource
ALPHA D-GALACTOSEChEBI
alpha-D-GalChEBI
Gal-alphaChEBI
WURCS=2.0/1,1,0/[a2112h-1a_1-5]/1/ChEBI
alpha-D-GalactoseKegg
a D-GALACTOSEGenerator
Α D-galactoseGenerator
a-D-GalGenerator
Α-D-galGenerator
Gal-aGenerator
Gal-αGenerator
a-D-GalactoseGenerator
Α-D-galactoseGenerator
(+)-GalactoseHMDB
5AbpHMDB
8AbpHMDB
alpha-D-GalactopyranoseHMDB
D-(+)-GalactoseHMDB
D-HexoseHMDB
GALHMDB
GalactoseHMDB
Galactose (NF)HMDB
GLAHMDB
GLCHMDB
HexoseHMDB
SHU 508 aHMDB
SH-TA-508HMDB
SHU 508HMDB
LevovistHMDB
SHU-508HMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Mass180.1559 Da
Monoisotopic Mass180.06339 Da
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Namegalactose
CAS Registry Number59-23-4
SMILES
[H]OC([H])([H])[C@@]1([H])O[C@]([H])(O[H])[C@]([H])(O[H])[C@@]([H])(O[H])[C@@]1([H])O[H]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-PHYPRBDBSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-08-08View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-20View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Acacia tortuosaKNApSAcK Database
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporus
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicum
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosum
Aloysia triphylla
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifolia
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchos
Anatidae
Anethum graveolens
Angelica keiskei
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Anser anser
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappa
Armoracia rusticana
Artemisia dracunculus
Artemisia vulgaris
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Avena sativa L.
Averrhoa carambola
Basella alba
Benincasa hispida
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Bison bison
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bison
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica juncea
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napus
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea L. ssp. BotrytisKNApSAcK Database
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapa
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum alicastrum
Bubalus bubalis
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajan
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosa
Capra aegagrus hircus
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Carica papayaKNApSAcK Database
Carica papaya L.FooDB
CarideaFooDB
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carviFooDB
Carya
Carya illinoinensis
Cassia angustifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Castanea
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
Cervidae
Cervus canadensis
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamerion angustifolium
Chenopodium album
Chenopodium quinoa
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybus
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Cirsium
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus maxima
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
Columba
Columbidae
Corchorus olitorius
CoregonusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.
Corylus
Corylus avellana
Crassostrea virginicaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativus
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminum
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratus
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Diospyros
Diospyros kaki
Diospyros virginiana
Dromaius novaehollandiae
Durio zibethinus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elaeis
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomum
Empetrum nigrum
Equus caballus
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonica
Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fagopyrum tataricum
Fagus
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipes
Foeniculum vulgare
Fragaria x ananassa
GadiformesFooDB
Gadus macrocephalusFooDB
Gallus gallus
Garcinia mangostana
Gaylussacia baccata
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
Gossypium
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinum
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosus
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.KNApSAcK Database
HippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus hippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus stenolepisFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homarus americanusFooDB
Hordeum vulgare
Hyssopus officinalis L.
Ictalurus punctatusFooDB
Illicium verum
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
Juglans
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra L.
Juglans regia
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria siceraria
Lagopus muta
Laminaria japonicaKNApSAcK Database
Lathyrus sativus
Laurus nobilis L.
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativum
Leporidae
Lepus timidus
Levisticum officinale
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensis
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus
Lupinus albus
Macadamia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Malpighia emarginata
Malus
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americana
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Medicago sativa
Melanitta fusca
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha spicata
Mentha x piperita
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Microstomus kittFooDB
Momordica charantia
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubra
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
Morus
Morus nigra
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Myrica
Myristica fragrans
Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nephelium lappaceum
NephropidaeFooDB
Numida meleagris
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Odocoileus
Oenothera biennis
Olea europaeaFooDB
Oncorhynchus ketaFooDB
Oncorhynchus kisutchFooDB
Oncorhynchus mykissFooDB
Oncorhynchus nerkaFooDB
Oncorhynchus tshawytschaFooDB
Opuntia
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majorana
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
Oryctolagus
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaKNApSAcK Database
OsmeridaeFooDB
Ovis aries
Pachyrhizus erosus
Paeonia peregrinaKNApSAcK Database
Panax ginseng
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
PectinidaeFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oregana
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
Phasianidae
Phasianus colchicus
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllanthus sellowianusKNApSAcK Database
Phyllostachys edulis
Physalis
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisum
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativum
PleuronectiformesFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Polygonum alpinum
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumKNApSAcK Database
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasus
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Punica granatum
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rheum rhabarbarum
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
Rumex
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Saccharina japonicaPlant
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix pulchra
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia officinalis
Salvia rosmarinus
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra L.
Satureja hortensis L.
Satureja montana
Scorzonera hispanica
SebastesFooDB
Sebastes alutusFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosa
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum L.KNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum
Solanum melongena
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
SoleidaeFooDB
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Stenodus leucichthysFooDB
Struthio camelus
Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinale
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thelesperma
Theobroma cacaoFooDB
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trigonella foenum-graecum
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivum
Triticum durum
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
Vaccinium
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Vanilla
Verbena officinalis
Viburnum edule
Vicia faba
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularis
Vigna mungo
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinale
Zizania
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coliKNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Phoma medicaginisKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point170 °CNot Available
Boiling Point410.80 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility683 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.490 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000143
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021787
KNApSAcK IDC00001119
Chemspider ID388480
KEGG Compound IDC00984
BioCyc IDALPHA-D-GALACTOSE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGalactose
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound439357
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28061
Good Scents IDrw1233801
References
General References
  1. Tyfield L, Reichardt J, Fridovich-Keil J, Croke DT, Elsas LJ 2nd, Strobl W, Kozak L, Coskun T, Novelli G, Okano Y, Zekanowski C, Shin Y, Boleda MD: Classical galactosemia and mutations at the galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) gene. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(6):417-30. [PubMed:10408771 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [PubMed:2026685 ]
  4. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  5. Ning C, Segal S: Plasma galactose and galactitol concentration in patients with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency galactosemia: determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Metabolism. 2000 Nov;49(11):1460-6. [PubMed:11092512 ]
  6. Ning C, Reynolds R, Chen J, Yager C, Berry GT, McNamara PD, Leslie N, Segal S: Galactose metabolism by the mouse with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency. Pediatr Res. 2000 Aug;48(2):211-7. [PubMed:10926297 ]
  7. Rapoport EM, Nekrasov MV, Khaidukov SV, Svirshchevskaya EV, Zhigis LS, Kozlov LV, Batalova TN, Zubov VP, Bovin NV: Cellular localization of the galactose-binding lectin from human serum. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Nov;65(11):1316-20. [PubMed:11112850 ]
  8. Xu J, Ma M, Purcell WM: Optimizing the enzymatic determination of galactose in the culture medium of rat liver and HepG2 cell spheroids. Anal Biochem. 2002 Dec 15;311(2):179-81. [PubMed:12470678 ]
  9. Seiler CA, Renner EL, Czerniak A, Didonna D, Buchler MW, Reichen J: Early acute cellular rejection: no effect on late hepatic allograft function in man. Transpl Int. 1999;12(3):195-201. [PubMed:10429957 ]
  10. Schadewaldt P, Hammen HW, Loganathan K, Bodner-Leidecker A, Wendel U: Analysis of concentration and (13)C enrichment of D-galactose in human plasma. Clin Chem. 2000 May;46(5):612-9. [PubMed:10794741 ]
  11. Fenn PT, Ning C, Segal S, Blair IA: Determination of [(13)C]galactose enrichment in human plasma by gas chromatography/positive chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2000 Feb;35(2):218-23. [PubMed:10679984 ]
  12. van den Nieuwenhof IM, Renardel de Lavalette C, Diaz N, van Die I, van den Berg TK: Differential galactosylation of neuronal and haematopoietic signal regulatory protein-alpha determines its cellular binding-specificity. J Cell Sci. 2001 Apr;114(Pt 7):1321-9. [PubMed:11256998 ]
  13. Hernandez DE, Cohen A, Fisher D, Correnti M, Harner R: Antibody levels against galactosyl (alpha1 --> 3) galactose epitopes in cervical mucus from patients with human papillomavirus infection. Gynecol Oncol. 2002 Mar;84(3):374-7. [PubMed:11855872 ]
  14. Ono H, Mawatari H, Mizoguchi N, Eguchi T, Sakura N, Hamakawa M: Transient galactosemia detected by neonatal mass screening. Pediatr Int. 1999 Jun;41(3):281-4. [PubMed:10365579 ]
  15. Tamamori A, Fujimoto A, Okano Y, Kobayashi K, Saheki T, Tagami Y, Takei H, Shigematsu Y, Hata I, Ozaki H, Tokuhara D, Nishimura Y, Yorifuji T, Igarashi N, Ohura T, Shimizu T, Inui K, Sakai N, Abukawa D, Miyakawa T, Matsumori M, Ban K, Kaneko H, Yamano T: Effects of citrin deficiency in the perinatal period: feasibility of newborn mass screening for citrin deficiency. Pediatr Res. 2004 Oct;56(4):608-14. Epub 2004 Aug 4. [PubMed:15295082 ]
  16. Wang ZJ, Berry GT, Dreha SF, Zhao H, Segal S, Zimmerman RA: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain metabolites in galactosemia. Ann Neurol. 2001 Aug;50(2):266-9. [PubMed:11506413 ]
  17. Niebroj-Dobosz I, Janik P, Jamrozik Z, Kwiecinski H: Immunochemical quantification of glycoconjugates in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Eur J Neurol. 1999 May;6(3):335-40. [PubMed:10210915 ]
  18. Schmidt LE, Ott P, Tygstrup N: Galactose elimination capacity as a prognostic marker in patients with severe acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity: 10 years' experience. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 May;2(5):418-24. [PubMed:15118981 ]
  19. Vironen J, Kellokumpu S, Andersson LC, Kellokumpu I: Comparison of a peanut agglutinin test and an immunochemical faecal occult blood test in detecting colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004 Apr;64(2):140-5. [PubMed:15115252 ]
  20. Yago H, Kohgo Y, Kato J, Watanabe N, Sakamaki S, Niitsu Y: Detection and quantification of soluble asialoglycoprotein receptor in human serum. Hepatology. 1995 Feb;21(2):383-8. [PubMed:7843709 ]
  21. Chen J, Yager C, Reynolds R, Palmieri M, Segal S: Erythrocyte galactose 1-phosphate quantified by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2002;48(4):604-12. [PubMed:11901058 ]
  22. Mizoguchi N, Ono H, Eguchi T, Sakura N: Galactose metabolites in blood from neonates with and without hypergalactosaemia detected by mass screening. Eur J Pediatr. 2000 Nov;159(11):851-3. [PubMed:11079200 ]
  23. Cavalli C, Teng C, Battaglia FC, Bevilacqua G: Free sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations in human breast milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Feb;42(2):215-21. [PubMed:16456418 ]
  24. Shamsuddin AM, Tyner GT, Yang GY: Common expression of the tumor marker D-galactose-beta-[1-->3]-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine by different adenocarcinomas: evidence of field effect phenomenon. Cancer Res. 1995 Jan 1;55(1):149-52. [PubMed:7805025 ]
  25. Wan CC, Muldrey JE, Li SC, Li YT: beta-Mannosidase from the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus. J Biol Chem. 1976 Jul 25;251(14):4384-8. [PubMed:6478 ]
  26. Redaelli CA, Dufour JF, Wagner M, Schilling M, Husler J, Krahenbuhl L, Buchler MW, Reichen J: Preoperative galactose elimination capacity predicts complications and survival after hepatic resection. Ann Surg. 2002 Jan;235(1):77-85. [PubMed:11753045 ]
  27. Rudzeviciene O, Narkeviciute I, Eidukevicius R: Lactose malabsorption in young Lithuanian children with atopic dermatitis. Acta Paediatr. 2004 Apr;93(4):482-6. [PubMed:15188975 ]
  28. Lai K, Klapa MI: Alternative pathways of galactose assimilation: could inverse metabolic engineering provide an alternative to galactosemic patients? Metab Eng. 2004 Jul;6(3):239-44. [PubMed:15256214 ]
  29. Liu G, Hale GE, Hughes CL: Galactose metabolism and ovarian toxicity. Reprod Toxicol. 2000 Sep-Oct;14(5):377-84. [PubMed:11020650 ]
  30. Baristaite G, Gurwitz D: d-Galactose treatment increases ACE2, TMPRSS2, and FURIN and reduces SERPINA1 mRNA expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells. Drug Dev Res. 2021 Oct 22. doi: 10.1002/ddr.21891. [PubMed:34677831 ]