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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-20 20:28:29 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000923
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameD-Galactose
DescriptionD-Galactose is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. D-Galactose is an energy-providing nutrient and also a necessary basic substrate for the biosynthesis of many macromolecules in the body. Metabolic pathways for D-Galactose are important not only for the provision of these pathways but also for the prevention of D-Galactose and D-Galactose metabolite accumulation. The main source of D-Galactose is lactose in the milk of mammals, but it can also be found in some fruits and vegetables. Utilization of D-Galactose in all living cells is initiated by the phosphorylation of the hexose by the enzyme galactokinase (E.C. (GALK) to form D-Galactose-1-phosphate. In the presence of D-Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (E.C. (GALT) D-Galactose-1-phosphate is exchanged with glucose-1-phosphate in UDP-glucose to form UDP-galactose. Glucose-1-phosphate will then enter the glycolytic pathway for energy production. Deficiency of the enzyme GALT in galactosemic patients leads to the accumulation of D-Galactose-1-phosphate. Classic galactosemia-a term that denotes the presence of D-Galactose in the blood is the rare inborn error of D-Galactose metabolism, diagnosed by the deficiency of the second enzyme of the D-Galactose assimilation pathway, GALT, which, in turn, is caused by mutations at the GALT gene. (PMID: 15256214 , 11020650 , 10408771 ). Galactose in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of milk.
a D-GALACTOSEGenerator
Α D-galactoseGenerator
Galactose (NF)HMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Mass180.1559 Da
Monoisotopic Mass180.06339 Da
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Namegalactose
CAS Registry Number59-23-4
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-08-08View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-20View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Acacia tortuosaKNApSAcK Database
Brassica oleracea L. ssp. BotrytisKNApSAcK Database
Carica papayaKNApSAcK Database
Cassia angustifoliaKNApSAcK Database
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.KNApSAcK Database
Laminaria japonicaKNApSAcK Database
Oryza sativaKNApSAcK Database
Paeonia peregrinaKNApSAcK Database
Phyllanthus sellowianusKNApSAcK Database
Prunus aviumKNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicum L.KNApSAcK Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coliKNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Phoma medicaginisKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point170 °CNot Available
Boiling Point410.80 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility683 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.490 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP10(-2.6) g/LALOGPS
logP10(-2.9) g/LChemAxon
logS10(0.64) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021787
KNApSAcK IDC00001119
Chemspider ID388480
KEGG Compound IDC00984
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGalactose
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound439357
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28061
Good Scents IDrw1233801
General References
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  25. Wan CC, Muldrey JE, Li SC, Li YT: beta-Mannosidase from the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus. J Biol Chem. 1976 Jul 25;251(14):4384-8. [PubMed:6478 ]
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  27. Rudzeviciene O, Narkeviciute I, Eidukevicius R: Lactose malabsorption in young Lithuanian children with atopic dermatitis. Acta Paediatr. 2004 Apr;93(4):482-6. [PubMed:15188975 ]
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  30. Baristaite G, Gurwitz D: d-Galactose treatment increases ACE2, TMPRSS2, and FURIN and reduces SERPINA1 mRNA expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells. Drug Dev Res. 2021 Oct 22. doi: 10.1002/ddr.21891. [PubMed:34677831 ]