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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-06-29 00:46:56 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000910
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameN-Acetylserotonin
DescriptionN-Acetylserotonin (NAS), also known as normelatonin, is a naturally occurring chemical precursor and intermediate in the endogenous production of melatonin from serotonin. It also has biological activity in its own right, including acting as a melatonin receptor agonist, an agonist of the TrkB, and having antioxidant effects. N-Acetylserotonin is an intermediate in the metabolic pathway of melatonin and indoleamine in the pineal gland of mammalians. Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), which regulates the rate of melatonin biosynthesis in the pineal gland, catalyzes the acetylation of 5HT to N-acetylserotonin (NAS). A methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine is transferred to NAS by hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), and finally NAS is converted to 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, or melatonin. In most mammalian species the content of NAS (and melatonin) in the pineal gland shows clear circadian changes with the highest level occurring during the dark period. This elevation of the contents of NAS (and melatonin) in the dark period is due to the increase of SNAT activity and the elevation of SNAT gene expression. Experimental studies show that N-acetylserotonin possess free radical scavenging activity. Acute administration of irreversible and reversible selective MAO-A inhibitors and high doses (or chronic administration of low doses) of relatively selective MAO-B inhibitors (but not of highly selective MAO-B inhibitors) suppressed MAO-A activity and stimulated N-acetylation of pineal serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the immediate precursor of melatonin. N-acetylserotonin increase after MAO-A inhibitors might mediate their antidepressive and antihypertensive effects. N-Acetylserotonin is the product of the O-demethylation of melatonin mediated by cytochrome P-450 isoforms: Cytochrome p450, subfamily IIc, polypeptide 19 (CYP2C19, a clinically important enzyme that metabolizes a wide variety of drugs), with a minor contribution from Cytochrome p450, subfamily I, polypeptide (2CYP1A2, involved in O-deethylation of phenacetin). (PMID 15616152 , 11103901 , 10721079 , 10591054 ). N-Acetylserotonin acts as a potent antioxidant, NAS effectiveness as an anti-oxidant has been found to be different depending on the experimental model used, it has been described as being between 5 and 20 times more effect than melatonin at protecting against oxidant damage. NAS has been shown to protect against lipid peroxidation in microsomes and mitochondria. NAS has also been reported to lower resting levels of ROS in peripheral blood lymphocytes and to exhibit anti-oxidant effects against t-butylated hydroperoxide- and diamide-induced ROS.
Chemical FormulaC12H14N2O2
Average Mass218.2518 Da
Monoisotopic Mass218.10553 Da
IUPAC NameN-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]acetamide
Traditional NameN-acetylserotonin
CAS Registry Number1210-83-9
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Not Available
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Apis ceranaLOTUS Database
Bison bisonFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Daphnia pulexLOTUS Database
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxyindoles. These are organic compounds containing an indole moiety that carries a hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxyindoles
Direct ParentHydroxyindoles
Alternative Parents
  • Hydroxyindole
  • 3-alkylindole
  • Indole
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.57 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.56ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area65.12 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity61.8 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability23.59 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB04275
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB031021
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID879
KEGG Compound IDC00978
BiGG ID36527
Wikipedia LinkN-acetyl-serotonin
PubChem Compound903
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17697
Good Scents IDNot Available
General References
  1. Ma X, Idle JR, Krausz KW, Gonzalez FJ: Metabolism of melatonin by human cytochromes p450. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):489-94. Epub 2004 Dec 22. [PubMed:15616152 ]
  2. Harumi T, Matsushima S: Separation and assay methods for melatonin and its precursors. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2000 Sep 29;747(1-2):95-110. [PubMed:11103901 ]
  3. Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Cabrera J, D'Arpa D: Melatonin and tryptophan derivatives as free radical scavengers and antioxidants. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;467:379-87. [PubMed:10721079 ]
  4. Oxenkrug GF: Antidepressive and antihypertensive effects of MAO-A inhibition: role of N-acetylserotonin. A review. Neurobiology (Bp). 1999;7(2):213-24. [PubMed:10591054 ]
  5. Pan L, Yu J, Mi Z, Mo L, Jin H, Yao C, Ren D, Menghe B: A Metabolomics Approach Uncovers Differences between Traditional and Commercial Dairy Products in Buryatia (Russian Federation). Molecules. 2018 Mar 22;23(4). pii: molecules23040735. doi: 10.3390/molecules23040735. [PubMed:29565828 ]