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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-11 18:46:50 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000860
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameAdenosine
DescriptionAdenosine is a nucleoside that is composed of adenine and D-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. For instance, adenosine plays an important role in energy transfer as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It also plays a role in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Adenosine itself is both a neurotransmitter and potent vasodilator. When administered intravenously adenosine causes transient heart block in the AV node. Due to the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent supraventricular tachycardia, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent. Overdoses of adenosine intake (as a drug) can lead to several side effects including chest pain, feeling faint, shortness of breath, and tingling of the senses. Serious side effects include a worsening dysrhythmia and low blood pressure. When present in sufficiently high levels, adenosine can act as an immunotoxin and a metabotoxin. An immunotoxin disrupts, limits the function, or destroys immune cells. A metabotoxin is an endogenous metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of adenosine are associated with adenosine deaminase deficiency. Adenosine is a precursor to deoxyadenosine, which is a precursor to dATP. A buildup of dATP in cells inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and prevents DNA synthesis, so cells are unable to divide. Since developing T cells and B cells are some of the most mitotically active cells, they are unable to divide and propagate to respond to immune challenges. High levels of deoxyadenosine also lead to an increase in S-adenosylhomocysteine, which is toxic to immature lymphocytes.
Adenine deoxyribonucleosideChEBI
Adenine nucleosideHMDB
Adenine ribosideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H13N5O4
Average Mass267.2413 Da
Monoisotopic Mass267.09675 Da
IUPAC Name(2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diol
Traditional Nameadenosine
CAS Registry Number58-61-7
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-08-08View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-11View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-11View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Acanthopanax giraldiiKNApSAcK Database
Acanthus ebracteatusKNApSAcK Database
Acanthus ilicifoliusKNApSAcK Database
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Adiantum lunulatumKNApSAcK Database
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
Alangium platanifoliumLOTUS Database
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium chinenseLOTUS Database
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Allium tuberosum Rottl.ex Spreng.KNApSAcK Database
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
Alternaria alternataLOTUS Database
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica acutilobaLOTUS Database
Angelica archangelicaLOTUS Database
Angelica dahuricaLOTUS Database
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Aplysia kurodaiLOTUS Database
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Argemone mexicanaLOTUS Database
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisKNApSAcK Database
Asterias forbesiLOTUS Database
Atractylodes lanceaKNApSAcK Database
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Azadirachta indicaLOTUS Database
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Brachystemma calycinumLOTUS Database
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Broussonetia papyriferaLOTUS Database
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis flavicansKNApSAcK Database
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
Cassytha filiformisKNApSAcK Database
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Castilleja densifloraLOTUS Database
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiLOTUS Database
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus unshiuKNApSAcK Database
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cliona celataLOTUS Database
Clitoria ternateaLOTUS Database
Cnidium officinaleLOTUS Database
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Codonopsis pilosulaLOTUS Database
Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshenPlant
Codonopsis tangshen OLIV.KNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabicaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabica L.Plant
Coffea canephoraKNApSAcK Database
Coix lacryma-jobiLOTUS Database
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativumLOTUS Database
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusKNApSAcK Database
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativusLOTUS Database
Cucumis sativus L.KNApSAcK Database
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Cynomorium songaricumLOTUS Database
Daphnia magnaLOTUS Database
Daphnia pulexLOTUS Database
Datura metelPlant
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
Dioscorea oppositaKNApSAcK Database
Dioscorea oppositifoliaLOTUS Database
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
Dioscorea polystachyaLOTUS Database
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Eleutherococcus giraldiiLOTUS Database
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eunicella cavoliniLOTUS Database
Euodia fargesiiLOTUS Database
Eurycoma longifoliaLOTUS Database
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Fritillaria cirrhosaKNApSAcK Database
Fritillaria yuminensisLOTUS Database
Gallus gallusFooDB
Ganoderma japonicumLOTUS Database
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gastrodia elataKNApSAcK Database
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glehnia littoralisLOTUS Database
Glycine maxFooDB
Gnaphalium polycaulonLOTUS Database
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Helichrysum arenariumLOTUS Database
Hemerocallis fulvaLOTUS Database
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Houttuynia cordataKNApSAcK Database
Hyacinthoides non-scriptaLOTUS Database
Hydrangea macrophyllaLOTUS Database
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Ilex cornutaLOTUS Database
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
Isatis tinctoriaLOTUS Database
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Junceella juncea-
Kaempferia parvifloraLOTUS Database
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactarius subplinthogalusLOTUS Database
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Ligusticum sinenseLOTUS Database
Lilium mackliniaeLOTUS Database
Lilium pumilumLOTUS Database
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Litoria verreauxiiLOTUS Database
Lotus corniculatusLOTUS Database
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
Lupinus albusKNApSAcK Database
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Marchantia polymorphaLOTUS Database
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Maytenus hookeriLOTUS Database
Medicago sativaPlant
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melicope semecarpifoliaLOTUS Database
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Mikania laevigataLOTUS Database
Mollugo oppositifoliaLOTUS Database
Momordica charantiaFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
Morus albaLOTUS Database
Morus nigraFooDB
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Mycoplasmopsis bovisLOTUS Database
Myristica fragransFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Neptunea antiquaLOTUS Database
Nigrospora oryzaeLOTUS Database
Notechis scutatusLOTUS Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
Oligomeris linifoliaLOTUS Database
Ophiocordyceps sinensisLOTUS Database
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Oxytropis myriophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Oxytropis racemosaLOTUS Database
Pachliopta aristolochiaeLOTUS Database
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Paeonia obovataLOTUS Database
Paeonia suffruticosaLOTUS Database
Panax ginsengFooDB
Panax JaponicusLOTUS Database
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Paralepista flaccidaLOTUS Database
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phlebodium decumanumLOTUS Database
Phoebe formosanaLOTUS Database
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Polygonatum sibiricumLOTUS Database
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Populus albaLOTUS Database
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Pseudomyrmex triplarinusLOTUS Database
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salmonella entericaLOTUS Database
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Saposhnikovia divaricataLOTUS Database
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Sauropus androgynusLOTUS Database
Scaphium affineLOTUS Database
Scleropyrum pentandrumLOTUS Database
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Senna toraLOTUS Database
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
Smilax bracteataLOTUS Database
Solanum incanumLOTUS Database
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Streptomyces herbaceusLOTUS Database
Streptomyces piomogenusLOTUS Database
Struthio camelusFooDB
Strychnos lucidaKNApSAcK Database
Subergorgia suberosa-
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Synechococcus elongatusLOTUS Database
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tethya aurantiumLOTUS Database
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tinospora crispaPlant
Torilis japonicaLOTUS Database
Trachyspermum ammiLOTUS Database
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Triticum aestivumKNApSAcK Database
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Tuber indicumLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
Ulva pertusaLOTUS Database
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea maysLOTUS Database
Zea mays L.KNApSAcK Database
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine nucleosides. Purine nucleosides are compounds comprising a purine base attached to a ribosyl or deoxyribosyl moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPurine nucleosides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPurine nucleosides
Alternative Parents
  • Purine nucleoside
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Monosaccharide
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Primary amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point235.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point676.27 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility37 mg/mLWishart, D. S., Tzur, D., Knox, C., Eisner, R., Guo, A. C., Young, N., ... & Querengesser, L. (2007). HMDB: the human metabolome database. Nucleic acids research, 35(suppl_1), D521-D526.
LogP-1.05Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility14 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.92ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area139.54 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity63.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability25.28 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB00640
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003554
KNApSAcK IDC00007444
Chemspider ID54923
KEGG Compound IDC00212
BiGG ID34273
Wikipedia LinkAdenosine
PubChem Compound60961
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16335
Good Scents IDrw1136651
General References
  1. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  2. Lee SH, Jung BH, Kim SY, Chung BC: A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of nucleosides in human urine using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with direct urine injection. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(9):973-7. [PubMed:15116424 ]
  3. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2:18. [PubMed:15882454 ]
  4. Skalhegg BS, Funderud A, Henanger HH, Hafte TT, Larsen AC, Kvissel AK, Eikvar S, Orstavik S: Protein kinase A (PKA)--a potential target for therapeutic intervention of dysfunctional immune cells. Curr Drug Targets. 2005 Sep;6(6):655-64. [PubMed:16178799 ]
  5. Maytin M, Colucci WS: Cardioprotection: a new paradigm in the management of acute heart failure syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Sep 19;96(6A):26G-31G. [PubMed:16181820 ]
  6. Dodge-Kafka KL, Soughayer J, Pare GC, Carlisle Michel JJ, Langeberg LK, Kapiloff MS, Scott JD: The protein kinase A anchoring protein mAKAP coordinates two integrated cAMP effector pathways. Nature. 2005 Sep 22;437(7058):574-8. [PubMed:16177794 ]
  7. Gheorghiade M, Teerlink JR, Mebazaa A: Pharmacology of new agents for acute heart failure syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Sep 19;96(6A):68G-73G. [PubMed:16181825 ]
  8. Jansen RW, Kruijt JK, van Berkel TJ, Meijer DK: Coupling of the antiviral drug ara-AMP to lactosaminated albumin leads to specific uptake in rat and human hepatocytes. Hepatology. 1993 Jul;18(1):146-52. [PubMed:7686877 ]
  9. Ballantyne PJ: Social context and outcomes for the ageing breast cancer patient: considerations for clinical practitioners. J Clin Nurs. 2004 Mar;13(3a):11-21. [PubMed:15028034 ]
  10. Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Takahashi S, Fujita T, Tsutsumi Z, Yamakita J, Shimizu K, Shiota M, Ohta S, Higashino K: Determination of adenosine and deoxyadenosine in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Nov 20;719(1-2):55-61. [PubMed:9869364 ]
  11. Koeris M, Funke L, Shrestha J, Rich A, Maas S: Modulation of ADAR1 editing activity by Z-RNA in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Sep 21;33(16):5362-70. Print 2005. [PubMed:16177183 ]
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  13. Dunne VG, Bhattachayya S, Besser M, Rae C, Griffin JL: Metabolites from cerebrospinal fluid in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage correlate with vasospasm and clinical outcome: a pattern-recognition 1H NMR study. NMR Biomed. 2005 Feb;18(1):24-33. [PubMed:15455468 ]
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