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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 23:58:30 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000813
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameLithocholic acid
DescriptionLithocholic acid, also known as 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid or LCA, is a secondary bile acid. It is formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action and is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute and depends only on the presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine, and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH, and consequently require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.G. Membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues (PMID: 11316487 , 16037564 , 12576301 , 11907135 ). When present in sufficiently high levels, lithocholic acid can act as an oncometabolite. An oncometabolite is a compound that when present at chronically high levels promotes tumour growth and survival. Chronically high levels of lithocholic acid are associated with several forms of cancer including colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, and many other GI cancers. High bile acid levels lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, disruption of the cell membrane and mitochondria, induction of DNA damage, mutation and apoptosis, and the development of reduced apoptosis capability upon chronic exposure (PMID: 24884764 ). Dietary fibre can bind to lithocholic acid and aid in its excretion in stool. As such, fibre can protect against colon cancer.
(3alpha,5beta)-3-Hydroxycholan-24-Oic acidChEBI
3alpha-Hydroxy-5beta-cholanic acidChEBI
3alpha-Hydroxy-5beta-cholanoic acidChEBI
5beta-Cholanic acid-3alpha-olChEBI
(3a,5b)-3-Hydroxycholan-24-Oic acidGenerator
(3Α,5β)-3-hydroxycholan-24-Oic acidGenerator
3a-Hydroxy-5b-cholanic acidGenerator
3Α-hydroxy-5β-cholanic acidGenerator
3a-Hydroxy-5b-cholanoic acidGenerator
3Α-hydroxy-5β-cholanoic acidGenerator
5b-Cholanic acid-3a-olGenerator
5Β-cholanic acid-3α-olGenerator
Acid, lithocholicHMDB
Chemical FormulaC24H40O3
Average Mass376.5726 Da
Monoisotopic Mass376.29775 Da
IUPAC Name(4R)-4-[(1S,2S,5R,7R,10R,11S,14R,15R)-5-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanoic acid
Traditional Name(4R)-4-[(1S,2S,5R,7R,10R,11S,14R,15R)-5-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanoic acid
CAS Registry Number434-13-9
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 252 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 50 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 75 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 101 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 126 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 151 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 176 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 201 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 226 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Chemical Shift Submissions
Not Available
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Bos taurus domesticusKNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as monohydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives. These are bile acids, alcohols or any of their derivatives bearing a hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassBile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Direct ParentMonohydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Monohydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxide
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point186 °CNot Available
Boiling Point511.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility0.00038 mg/mLNot Available
LogP6.700 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0005 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity107.68 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability45.8 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022230
KNApSAcK IDC00051298
Chemspider ID9519
KEGG Compound IDC03990
BioCyc IDCPD-7235
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLithocholic_acid
PubChem Compound9903
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16325
Good Scents IDrw1255741
General References
  1. Tadano T, Kanoh M, Matsumoto M, Sakamoto K, Kamano T: Studies of serum and feces bile acids determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rinsho Byori. 2006 Feb;54(2):103-10. [PubMed:16548228 ]
  2. Salen G, Tint GS, Eliav B, Deering N, Mosbach EH: Increased formation of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid. J Clin Invest. 1974 Feb;53(2):612-21. [PubMed:11344576 ]
  3. Deleze G, Paumgartner G, Karlaganis G, Giger W, Reinhard M, Sidiropoulos D: Bile acid pattern in human amniotic fluid. Eur J Clin Invest. 1978 Feb;8(1):41-5. [PubMed:417931 ]
  4. Beher WT, Gabbard A, Norum RA, Stradnieks S: Effect of blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration on fecal steroid excretion in humans. Life Sci. 1983 Jun 27;32(26):2933-7. [PubMed:6865641 ]
  5. Rudi J, Schonig T, Stremmel W: -Therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid in primary biliary cirrhosis in pregnancy-. Z Gastroenterol. 1996 Mar;34(3):188-91. [PubMed:8650973 ]
  6. Stadler J, Yeung KS, Furrer R, Marcon N, Himal HS, Bruce WR: Proliferative activity of rectal mucosa and soluble fecal bile acids in patients with normal colons and in patients with colonic polyps or cancer. Cancer Lett. 1988 Jan;38(3):315-20. [PubMed:3349450 ]
  7. Greco AV, Mingrone G: Serum bile acid concentrations in mild liver cirrhosis. Clin Chim Acta. 1993 Nov 30;221(1-2):183-9. [PubMed:8149635 ]
  8. Kitahara M, Sakata S, Sakamoto M, Benno Y: Comparison among fecal secondary bile acid levels, fecal microbiota and Clostridium scindens cell numbers in Japanese. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48(5):367-75. [PubMed:15215624 ]
  9. Dew MJ, van Berge Henegouwen GP, Huybregts AW, Allan RN: Hepatotoxic effect of bile acids in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 1980 Jun;78(6):1393-401. [PubMed:7372059 ]
  10. Ceryak S, Bouscarel B, Fromm H: Comparative binding of bile acids to serum lipoproteins and albumin. J Lipid Res. 1993 Oct;34(10):1661-74. [PubMed:8245717 ]
  11. Eklund A, Norlander A, Norman A: Bile acid synthesis and excretion following release of total extrahepatic cholestasis by percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Eur J Clin Invest. 1980 Oct;10(5):349-55. [PubMed:6777167 ]
  12. Balistreri WF, Suchy FJ, Farrell MK, Heubi JE: Pathologic versus physiologic cholestasis: elevated serum concentration of a secondary bile acid in the presence of hepatobiliary disease. J Pediatr. 1981 Mar;98(3):399-402. [PubMed:7205448 ]
  13. Fouin-Fortunet H, Le Quernec L, Erlinger S, Lerebours E, Colin R: Hepatic alterations during total parenteral nutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a possible consequence of lithocholate toxicity. Gastroenterology. 1982 May;82(5 Pt 1):932-7. [PubMed:6800873 ]
  14. Hofmann AF: [Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and biliary lipid secretion]. Minerva Med. 1977 Sep 19;68(43):3011-7. [PubMed:409965 ]
  15. Loof L, Wengle B: Enzymatic sulphation of bile salts in human liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Sep 28;530(3):451-60. [PubMed:698243 ]
  16. Tinker LF, Schneeman BO, Davis PA, Gallaher DD, Waggoner CR: Consumption of prunes as a source of dietary fiber in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 May;53(5):1259-65. [PubMed:1850578 ]
  17. Farrell GC, Duddy SK, Kass GE, Llopis J, Gahm A, Orrenius S: Release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum is not the mechanism for bile acid-induced cholestasis and hepatotoxicity in the intact rat liver. J Clin Invest. 1990 Apr;85(4):1255-9. [PubMed:2318979 ]
  18. St-Pierre MV, Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Transport of bile acids in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. J Exp Biol. 2001 May;204(Pt 10):1673-86. [PubMed:11316487 ]
  19. Claudel T, Staels B, Kuipers F: The Farnesoid X receptor: a molecular link between bile acid and lipid and glucose metabolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Oct;25(10):2020-30. Epub 2005 Jul 21. [PubMed:16037564 ]
  20. Chiang JY: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Mar;284(3):G349-56. [PubMed:12576301 ]
  21. Davis RA, Miyake JH, Hui TY, Spann NJ: Regulation of cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase: BAREly missing a SHP. J Lipid Res. 2002 Apr;43(4):533-43. [PubMed:11907135 ]
  22. Ajouz H, Mukherji D, Shamseddine A: Secondary bile acids: an underrecognized cause of colon cancer. World J Surg Oncol. 2014 May 24;12:164. doi: 10.1186/1477-7819-12-164. [PubMed:24884764 ]