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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-07-15 17:42:18 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000792
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NamePutrescine
DescriptionPutrescine is a polyamine. Putrescine is related to cadaverine (another polyamine). Both are produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living and dead organisms and both are toxic in large doses. Putrescine and cadaverine are largely responsible for the foul odor of putrefying flesh, but also contribute to the odor of such processes as bad breath and bacterial vaginosis. Putrescine has been identified as a uremic toxin according to the European Uremic Toxin Working Group (PMID: 22626821 ). It is also found in semen. Putrescine attacks s-adenosyl methionine and converts it to spermidine. Spermidine in turn attacks another s-adenosyl methionine and converts it to spermine. Putrescine is synthesized in small quantities by healthy living cells by the action of ornithine decarboxylase. The polyamines, of which putrescine is one of the simplest, appear to be growth factors necessary for cell division. Putrescine apparently has specific role in skin physiology and neuroprotection. (PMID: 15009201 , 16364196 ). Pharmacological interventions have demonstrated convincingly that a steady supply of polyamines is a prerequisite for cell proliferation to occur. Genetic engineering of polyamine metabolism in transgenic rodents has shown that polyamines play a role in spermatogenesis, skin physiology, promotion of tumorigenesis and organ hypertrophy as well as neuronal protection. Transgenic activation of polyamine catabolism not only profoundly disturbs polyamine homeostasis in most tissues, but also creates a complex phenotype affecting skin, female fertility, fat depots, pancreatic integrity and regenerative growth. Transgenic expression of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme has suggested that this unique protein may act as a general tumor suppressor. Homozygous deficiency of the key biosynthetic enzymes of the polyamines, ornithine and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase is not compatible with murine embryogenesis. Putrescine can be found in Citrobacter, Corynebacterium, Cronobacter and Enterobacter (PMID: 27872963 ) (Https://Onlinelibrary.Wiley.Com/doi/full/10.1111/1541-4337.12099).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,4-ButanediamineChEBI
1,4-ButylenediamineChEBI
1,4-DIAMINOBUTANEChEBI
1,4-TetramethylenediamineChEBI
Butane-1,4-diamineChEBI
ButylenediamineChEBI
H2N(CH2)4nh2ChEBI
PutrescinChEBI
PutrescinaChEBI
PutreszinChEBI
TetramethylendiaminChEBI
TetramethylenediamineChEBI
1,4-ButanediammoniumHMDB
TetramethyldiamineHMDB
1,4 DiaminobutaneHMDB
1,4 ButanediamineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H12N2
Average Mass88.1515 Da
Monoisotopic Mass88.10005 Da
IUPAC Namebutane-1,4-diamine
Traditional Nameputrescine
CAS Registry Number110-60-1
SMILES
NCCCCN
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H12N2/c5-3-1-2-4-6/h1-6H2
InChI KeyKIDHWZJUCRJVML-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-08-02View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-07-15View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-07-15View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Anisodus belladonnaKNApSAcK Database
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Atropa acuminataLOTUS Database
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativaLOTUS Database
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bergera koenegii-
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Brugmansia x candidaLOTUS Database
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Canavalia gladiataLOTUS Database
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumKNApSAcK Database
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Catharanthus roseusLOTUS Database
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiLOTUS Database
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
Corydalis yanhusuoKNApSAcK Database
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Coryphaena hippurusLOTUS Database
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cyanidium caldariumLOTUS Database
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Daphnia magnaLOTUS Database
Datura metelKNApSAcK Database
Datura stramoniumKNApSAcK Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Erythoxylum coca-
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Galleria mellonellaLOTUS Database
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxKNApSAcK Database
Glycine sojaKNApSAcK Database
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Helix pomatiaLOTUS Database
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Hippospongia communisLOTUS Database
Hordeum vulgareKNApSAcK Database
Hypholoma fasciculareLOTUS Database
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Litoria verreauxiiLOTUS Database
Lotus corniculatusLOTUS Database
Lotus glaberLOTUS Database
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
Lyallia kerguelensisKNApSAcK Database
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Murraya paniculataKNApSAcK Database
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa paradisiacaLOTUS Database
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Nicotiana alataLOTUS Database
Nicotiana tabacumKNApSAcK Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
OdocoileusFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengKNApSAcK Database
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Picea glaucaLOTUS Database
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Pogostemon cablinLOTUS Database
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Populus tremulaLOTUS Database
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumKNApSAcK Database
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salmonella entericaLOTUS Database
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Santalum albumKNApSAcK Database
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Senecio vernalisLOTUS Database
Senecio vulgarisLOTUS Database
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum L.KNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Synechococcus elongatusLOTUS Database
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
ThelespermaFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trapa natansLOTUS Database
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumKNApSAcK Database
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
Utricularia intermediaLOTUS Database
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis viniferaLOTUS Database
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthoselinum alsaticumLOTUS Database
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coliKNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as monoalkylamines. These are organic compounds containing an primary aliphatic amine group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassAmines
Direct ParentMonoalkylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point27.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000000 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
LogP-0.70Sangster, J. (1993). LOGKOW- a Databank of Evaluated Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients. Sangster Research Laboratories, Montreal.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility236 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.98ALOGPS
logP-0.85ChemAxon
logS0.43ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.51ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.04 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity27.38 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.07 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0001414
DrugBank IDDB01917
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB006243
KNApSAcK IDC00001428
Chemspider ID13837702
KEGG Compound IDC02896
BioCyc IDPUTRESCINE
BiGG ID33980
Wikipedia LinkPutrescine
METLIN ID3226
PubChem Compound1045
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17148
Good Scents IDrw1148651
References
General References
  1. Gimelli G, Giglio S, Zuffardi O, Alhonen L, Suppola S, Cusano R, Lo Nigro C, Gatti R, Ravazzolo R, Seri M: Gene dosage of the spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase ( SSAT) gene with putrescine accumulation in a patient with a Xp21.1p22.12 duplication and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD). Hum Genet. 2002 Sep;111(3):235-41. Epub 2002 Aug 1. [PubMed:12215835 ]
  2. Janne J, Alhonen L, Pietila M, Keinanen TA: Genetic approaches to the cellular functions of polyamines in mammals. Eur J Biochem. 2004 Mar;271(5):877-94. [PubMed:15009201 ]
  3. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  4. Venza M, Visalli M, Cicciu D, Teti D: Determination of polyamines in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001 Jun 5;757(1):111-7. [PubMed:11419735 ]
  5. El Baze P, Milano G, Verrando P, Renee N, Ortonne JP: Polyamine levels in normal human skin. A comparative study of pure epidermis, pure dermis, and suction blister fluid. Arch Dermatol Res. 1983;275(4):218-21. [PubMed:6625645 ]
  6. Reeben M, Arbatova J, Palgi J, Miettinen R, Halmekyto M, Alhonen L, Janne J, Riekkinen P Sr, Saarma M: Induced expression of neurotrophins in transgenic mice overexpressing ornithine decarboxylase and overproducing putrescine. J Neurosci Res. 1996 Sep 1;45(5):542-8. [PubMed:8875319 ]
  7. Takagi K, Tatsumi Y, Kitaichi K, Iwase M, Shibata E, Nakao M, Matsumoto T, Takagi K, Hasegawa T: A sensitive colorimetric assay for polyamines in erythrocytes using oat seedling polyamine oxidase. Clin Chim Acta. 2004 Feb;340(1-2):219-27. [PubMed:14734216 ]
  8. Harik SI, Sutton CH: Putrescine as a biochemical marker of malignant brain tumors. Cancer Res. 1979 Dec;39(12):5010-5. [PubMed:227593 ]
  9. Halmekyto M, Alhonen L, Alakuijala L, Janne J: Transgenic mice over-producing putrescine in their tissues do not convert the diamine into higher polyamines. Biochem J. 1993 Apr 15;291 ( Pt 2):505-8. [PubMed:8484731 ]
  10. Goldman SS, Volkow ND, Brodie J, Flamm ES: Putrescine metabolism in human brain tumors. J Neurooncol. 1986;4(1):23-9. [PubMed:3746382 ]
  11. Yamazaki H, Tsukahara T, Uki J, Matsuzaki S: Elevated levels of free putrescine and N1-acetylspermidine in cyst fluids of malignant brain tumours. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 Feb;49(2):209-10. [PubMed:3950641 ]
  12. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 May;31(5):419-25. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Epub 2013 Mar 3. [PubMed:23455439 ]
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