Np mrd loader

You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on NP-MRD.
Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-06-02 15:59:50 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000786
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameL-Proline
DescriptionProline (Pro), also known as L-proline is an alpha-amino acid. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. Proline is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.E., The amino acids used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Proline is found in all organisms ranging from bacteria to plants to animals. It is classified as an aliphatic, non-polar amino acid. Proline is sometimes called an imino acid, although the IUPAC definition of an imine requires a carbon-nitrogen double bond. Proline is a non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons. Proline is derived from the amino acid L-glutamate in which glutamate-5-semialdehyde is first formed by glutamate 5-kinase and glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (which requires NADH or NADPH). This semialdehyde can then either spontaneously cyclize to form 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid, which is reduced to proline by pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, or turned into ornithine by ornithine aminotransferase, followed by cyclization by ornithine cyclodeaminase to form proline. L-Proline has been found to act as a weak agonist of the glycine receptor and of both NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors. It has been proposed to be a potential endogenous excitotoxin/neurotoxin. Studies in rats have shown that when injected into the brain, proline non-selectively destroys pyramidal and granule cells (PMID: 3409032 ). Therefore, under certain conditions proline can act as a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin. A neurotoxin causes damage to nerve cells and nerve tissues. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of proline are associated with at least five inborn errors of metabolism, including hyperprolinemia type I, hyperprolinemia type II, iminoglycinuria, prolinemia type II, and pyruvate carboxylase deficiency. People with hyperprolinemia type I often do not show any symptoms even though they have proline levels in their blood between 3 and 10 times the normal level. Some individuals with hyperprolinemia type I exhibit seizures, intellectual disability, or other neurological or psychiatric problems. Hyperprolinemia type II results in proline levels in the blood between 10 and 15 times higher than normal, and high levels of a related compound called pyrroline-5-carboxylate. Hyperprolinemia type II has signs and symptoms that vary in severity and is more likely than type I to involve seizures or intellectual disability.
Structure
Data?1628564081
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-(S)-ProlineChEBI
(-)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidChEBI
(-)-ProlineChEBI
(2S)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
(S)-2-CarboxypyrrolidineChEBI
(S)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidChEBI
(S)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidChEBI
L-(-)-ProlineChEBI
L-alpha-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidChEBI
L-ProlinChEBI
L-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
PChEBI
ProlinaChEBI
PROLINEChEBI
ProlinumChEBI
(-)-2-PyrrolidinecarboxylateGenerator
(2S)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylateGenerator
(S)-2-PyrrolidinecarboxylateGenerator
(S)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylateGenerator
2-PyrrolidinecarboxylateGenerator
L-a-PyrrolidinecarboxylateGenerator
L-a-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidGenerator
L-alpha-PyrrolidinecarboxylateGenerator
L-Α-pyrrolidinecarboxylateGenerator
L-Α-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acidGenerator
L-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylateGenerator
(S)-(-)-ProlineHMDB
(S)-(-)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylateHMDB
(S)-(-)-Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acidHMDB
(S)-2-PyrralidinecarboxylateHMDB
(S)-2-Pyrralidinecarboxylic acidHMDB
(S)-ProlineHMDB
L ProlineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO2
Average Mass115.1305 Da
Monoisotopic Mass115.06333 Da
IUPAC Name(2S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional NameL-proline
CAS Registry Number147-85-3
SMILES
[H]OC(=O)[C@@]1([H])N([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C1([H])[H]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9NO2/c7-5(8)4-2-1-3-6-4/h4,6H,1-3H2,(H,7,8)/t4-/m0/s1
InChI KeyONIBWKKTOPOVIA-BYPYZUCNSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-08-03View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-06-02View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-06-02View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Abramis bramaFooDB
Achillea alpinaLOTUS Database
AcipenseridaeFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anarhichas lupusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica gigasLOTUS Database
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
AnguilliformesFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemia salinaLOTUS Database
Artemisia absinthiumLOTUS Database
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
AstacideaFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Belone beloneFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
BivalviaFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
BrachyuraFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Calendula officinalisLOTUS Database
Calliandra angustifoliaLOTUS Database
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cancer magisterFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumKNApSAcK Database
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
CarideaFooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
Casimiroa edulisLOTUS Database
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chionoecetes opilioFooDB
Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiLOTUS Database
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Chrysophyllum roxburghiiLOTUS Database
Cicer arietinumFooDB
CichlidaeFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus natsudaidaiKNApSAcK Database
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus unshiuKNApSAcK Database
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
ClupeinaeFooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
CoregonusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crassostrea gigasFooDB
Crassostrea virginicaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita foetidissimaLOTUS Database
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cycas circinalisLOTUS Database
CyclopteridaeFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Dalbergia melanoxylonLOTUS Database
Daphnia magnaLOTUS Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
EngraulidaeFooDB
Epipremnum aureumLOTUS Database
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Esox luciusFooDB
EucheumaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Euphorbia tithymaloidesLOTUS Database
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
GadiformesFooDB
GadusFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
GastropodaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Gyromitra esculentaLOTUS Database
Hedera hibernicaLOTUS Database
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
HippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus hippoglossusFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hoplostethus atlanticusFooDB
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Ictalurus punctatusFooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Indigofera hendecaphyllaLOTUS Database
Iochroma fuchsioidesLOTUS Database
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
Jatropha gossypifoliaLOTUS Database
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Juniperus communisLOTUS Database
Katsuwonus pelamisFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
Lepomis gibbosusFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Limanda limandaFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Litoria verreauxiiLOTUS Database
Lota lotaFooDB
Lotus burttiiLOTUS Database
Lotus corniculatusLOTUS Database
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
Lunaria annuaLOTUS Database
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Melanogrammus aeglefinusFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Merlangius merlangusFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Micromesistius poutassouFooDB
Microstomus kittFooDB
Molva molvaFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Mycoplasmopsis bovisLOTUS Database
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
MytilidaeFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
NephropidaeFooDB
Nephrops norvegicusFooDB
Neptunea antiquaLOTUS Database
Nicotiana tabacumLOTUS Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Octopus vulgarisFooDB
OdocoileusFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
Oncorhynchus gorbuschaFooDB
Oncorhynchus ketaFooDB
Oncorhynchus kisutchFooDB
Oncorhynchus mykissFooDB
Oncorhynchus nerkaFooDB
Oncorhynchus tshawytschaFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia ficus-indicaLOTUS Database
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
OsmeridaeFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
PalinuridaeFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
PapaverFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Passiflora incarnataLOTUS Database
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
PectinidaeFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Pentaclethra macrophyllaLOTUS Database
PerciformesFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus densifloraLOTUS Database
Pinus edulisFooDB
Pinus ponderosaLOTUS Database
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
PleuronectidaeFooDB
PleuronectiformesFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Pogostemon cablinLOTUS Database
PollachiusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prosopis glandulosaLOTUS Database
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Ramalina fraxineaLOTUS Database
RanidaeFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Reinhardtius hippoglossoidesFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
Ripariosida hermaphroditaLOTUS Database
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Saccharina japonicaFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salmo salarFooDB
Salmonella entericaLOTUS Database
SalmonidaeFooDB
SalvelinusFooDB
Salvelinus namaycushFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Sander luciopercaFooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
ScombridaeFooDB
Scophthalmus maximusFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Sebastes alutusFooDB
Sebastes viviparusFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
SepiidaeFooDB
Seriola lalandiFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
SiluriformesFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spermacoce pusillaLOTUS Database
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Squalus acanthiasFooDB
Stangeria eriopusLOTUS Database
Stellaria mediaLOTUS Database
Stenodus leucichthysFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Suaeda aegyptiacaLOTUS Database
Suaeda nudifloraLOTUS Database
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
Thalassiosira pseudonanaLOTUS Database
ThelespermaFooDB
Theobroma cacaoFooDB
ThunnusFooDB
Thunnus albacaresFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Trisopterus esmarkiiFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coliKNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as proline and derivatives. Proline and derivatives are compounds containing proline or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of proline at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentProline and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Proline or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Secondary amine
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point221 °CNot Available
Boiling Point252.19 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility162 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.54Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility365 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS0.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.33 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity28.06 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.5 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000162
DrugBank IDDB00172
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000570
KNApSAcK IDC00001388
Chemspider ID128566
KEGG Compound IDC00148
BioCyc IDPRO
BiGG ID34042
Wikipedia LinkL-proline
METLIN ID29
PubChem Compound145742
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17203
Good Scents IDrw1035851
References
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  3. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [PubMed:12297216 ]
  4. Deng C, Shang C, Hu Y, Zhang X: Rapid diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other aminoacidemias by quantitative analysis of amino acids in neonatal blood spots by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Jul 25;775(1):115-20. [PubMed:12101068 ]
  5. Azizi M, Junot C, Ezan E, Menard J: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme and metabolism of the haematological peptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2001 Dec;28(12):1066-9. [PubMed:11903317 ]
  6. Roesel RA, Blankenship PR, Mobley EB, Coryell ME: Increased excretion of histidyl-L-proline diketopiperazine by infants receiving Pregestimil and Nutramigen formulas. Clin Chem. 1986 May;32(5):865-7. [PubMed:3698278 ]
  7. Chambers ST, Kunin CM: Osmoprotective activity for Escherichia coli in mammalian renal inner medulla and urine. Correlation of glycine and proline betaines and sorbitol with response to osmotic loads. J Clin Invest. 1987 Nov;80(5):1255-60. [PubMed:3316273 ]
  8. Azizi M, Ezan E, Reny JL, Wdzieczak-Bakala J, Gerineau V, Menard J: Renal and metabolic clearance of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in humans. Hypertension. 1999 Mar;33(3):879-86. [PubMed:10082503 ]
  9. Hart W, van den Hamer CJ, van der Sluys Veer J: The use of hydroxy-DL-proline-2-(14)C in the investigation of hydroxyproline metabolism in normal subjects and in patients with renal insufficiency. Clin Nephrol. 1976 Sep;6(3):379-87. [PubMed:991465 ]
  10. Kanwar YS, Krakower CA, Manaligod JR, Justice P, Wong PW: Biochemical, morphological and hybrid studies in hyperprolinemic mice. Biomedicine. 1975 May;22(3):209-16. [PubMed:240452 ]
  11. Simila S: Hydroxyproline metabolism in type II hyperprolinaemia. Ann Clin Biochem. 1979 Jul;16(4):177-81. [PubMed:533224 ]
  12. Lu SH, Ohshima H, Fu HM, Tian Y, Li FM, Blettner M, Wahrendorf J, Bartsch H: Urinary excretion of N-nitrosamino acids and nitrate by inhabitants of high- and low-risk areas for esophageal cancer in Northern China: endogenous formation of nitrosoproline and its inhibition by vitamin C. Cancer Res. 1986 Mar;46(3):1485-91. [PubMed:3943105 ]
  13. Hausmann D: [Post-traumatic imbalances of plasma amino acids--interference factors or defense mechanisms? A study of protein metabolism in severe craniocerebral trauma]. Anasth Intensivther Notfallmed. 1988 Feb;23(1):14-21. [PubMed:3364629 ]
  14. Scriver CR, McInnes RR, Mohyuddin F: Role of epithelial architecture and intracellular metabolism in proline uptake and transtubular reclamation in PRO/re mouse kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Apr;72(4):1431-5. [PubMed:1055415 ]
  15. Boden G, Rezvani I, Owen OE: Effects of glucagon on plasma amino acids. J Clin Invest. 1984 Mar;73(3):785-93. [PubMed:6142902 ]
  16. Feldman JM, Plonk JW, Admiraal J, Sidbury JB: Plasma amino acids in patients with the carcinoid syndrome. Cancer. 1976 Nov;38(5):2127-31. [PubMed:136295 ]
  17. Humbertclaude V, Rivier F, Roubertie A, Echenne B, Bellet H, Vallat C, Morin D: Is hyperprolinemia type I actually a benign trait? Report of a case with severe neurologic involvement and vigabatrin intolerance. J Child Neurol. 2001 Aug;16(8):622-3. [PubMed:11510941 ]
  18. Nagata Y, Higashi M, Ishii Y, Sano H, Tanigawa M, Nagata K, Noguchi K, Urade M: The presence of high concentrations of free D-amino acids in human saliva. Life Sci. 2006 Mar 6;78(15):1677-81. Epub 2006 Feb 9. [PubMed:16480744 ]
  19. Nagata Y, Masui R, Akino T: The presence of free D-serine, D-alanine and D-proline in human plasma. Experientia. 1992 Oct 15;48(10):986-8. [PubMed:1426150 ]
  20. Nadler JV, Wang A, Hakim A: Toxicity of L-proline toward rat hippocampal neurons. Brain Res. 1988 Jul 19;456(1):168-72. [PubMed:3409032 ]
  21. Duncan CJA, Skouboe MK, Howarth S, Hollensen AK, Chen R, Borresen ML, Thompson BJ, Stremenova Spegarova J, Hatton CF, Staeger FF, Andersen MK, Whittaker J, Paludan SR, Jorgensen SE, Thomsen MK, Mikkelsen JG, Heilmann C, Buhas D, Obro NF, Bay JT, Marquart HV, de la Morena MT, Klejka JA, Hirschfeld M, Borgwardt L, Forss I, Masmas T, Poulsen A, Noya F, Rouleau G, Hansen T, Zhou S, Albrechtsen A, Alizadehfar R, Allenspach EJ, Hambleton S, Mogensen TH: Life-threatening viral disease in a novel form of autosomal recessive IFNAR2 deficiency in the Arctic. J Exp Med. 2022 Jun 6;219(6). pii: 213169. doi: 10.1084/jem.20212427. Epub 2022 Apr 20. [PubMed:35442417 ]