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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:41:26 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000748
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common Namemyo-Inositol
DescriptionMyo-Inositol is an inositol isoform. Inositol is a derivative of cyclohexane with six hydroxyl groups, making it a polyol. It also is known as a sugar alcohol, having exactly the same molecular formula as glucose or other hexoses. Inositol exists in nine possible stereoisomers, of which cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol, or myo-inositol is the most widely occurring form in nature. The other known inositols include scyllo-inositol, muco-inositol, D-chiro-inositol, L-chiro-inositol, neo-inositol, allo-inositol, epi-inositol and cis-inositol. Myo-Inositol is found naturally in many foods (particularly in cereals with high bran content) and can be used as a sweetner as it has half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar). Myo-Inositol was once considered a member of the vitamin B complex and given the name: Vitamin B8. However, because it is produced by the human body from glucose, it is not an essential nutrient, and therefore cannot be called a vitamin. Myo-Inositol is a precursor molecule for a number of secondary messengers including various inositol phosphates. In addition, inositol/myo-inositol is an important component of the lipids known as phosphatidylinositol (PI) phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP). Myo-Inositol is synthesized from glucose, via glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) in two steps. First, G-6-P is isomerised by an inositol-3-phosphate synthase enzyme to myo-inositol 1-phosphate, which is then dephosphorylated by an inositol monophosphatase enzyme to give free myo-inositol. In humans, myo-inositol is primarily synthesized in the kidneys at a rate of a few grams per day. Myo-Inositol can be used in the management of preterm babies who have or are at a risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome. It is also used as a treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It works by increasing insulin sensitivity, which helps to improve ovarian function and reduce hyperandrogenism. Reduced levels of myo-inositol have been found in the spinal fluid of depressed patients and levels are significantly reduced in brain samples of suicide victims.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R,6S)-Cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexolChEBI
1,2,3,4,5,6-HEXAHYDROXY-cyclohexaneChEBI
1,2,3,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexolChEBI
1D-Myo-inositolChEBI
1l-Myo-inositolChEBI
Bios IChEBI
cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-CyclohexanehexolChEBI
CyclohexitolChEBI
D-Myo-inositolChEBI
DamboseChEBI
I-inositolChEBI
InositeChEBI
InositolChEBI
InsChEBI
L-Myo-inositolChEBI
Meat sugarChEBI
Meso-inositolChEBI
MyoinositolChEBI
InositalKegg
Iso-inositolHMDB
MIHMDB
MyoinositeHMDB
PhaseomanniteHMDB
Rat antispectacled eye factorHMDB
Myo inositolHMDB
Vitamin b8HMDB
Myo-inositolHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Mass180.1559 Da
Monoisotopic Mass180.06339 Da
IUPAC Name(1R,2R,3r,4S,5S,6s)-cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol
Traditional NameL-inositol
CAS Registry Number87-89-8
SMILES
O[C@H]1[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2(8)4(10)6(12)5(11)3(1)9/h1-12H/t1-,2-,3-,4+,5-,6-
InChI KeyCDAISMWEOUEBRE-GPIVLXJGSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-08-11View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-08-07View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentus
Actinidia chinensis
Agaricus bisporus
Agave
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicum
Allium cepa
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium sativum
Allium schoenoprasum
Allium tuberosum
Aloysia triphylla
Amaranthus
Amelanchier alnifolia
Anacardium occidentale
Ananas comosus
Anas platyrhynchos
Anatidae
Anethum graveolens
Angelica keiskei
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Anser anser
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulce
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaea
Arctium lappa
Armoracia rusticana
Artemisia dracunculus
Artemisia vulgaris
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
    • Graeme A. King, Kate G. Henderson, Erin M. O'Donoghue, Wilhelmina Martin, Ross E. Lill. Flavour a...
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Avena sativa L.
Averrhoa carambolaKNApSAcK Database
Basella alba
Benincasa hispida
Bergera koenegii-
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Bison bison
Borago officinalis
Bos taurus
Bos taurus X Bison bison
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica napus var. napus
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italicaKNApSAcK Database
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapa
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum alicastrum
Bubalus bubalis
Byrsonima crassifolia
Cajanus cajan
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibarius
Capparis spinosa
Capra aegagrus hircus
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuum
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Carica papayaKNApSAcK Database
Carica papaya L.Plant
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya
Carya illinoinensis
Castanea
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Centrosema pubescensKNApSAcK Database
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
Cervidae
Cervus canadensis
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifolium
Chenopodium album
Chenopodium quinoa
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybusFooDB
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Cirsium
Citrullus lanatus
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus maxima
Citrus paradisi
Citrus reticulata
Citrus sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)Plant
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabicaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabica L.
Coffea canephora
Colocasia esculenta
Columba
Columbidae
Corchorus olitorius
Coriandrum sativum L.
Corylus
Corylus avellana
Crateva religiosa
Crocus sativus
Cucumis melo
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maxima
Cucurbita moschata
Cuminum cyminum
Curcuma domesticaKNApSAcK Database
Curcuma longa
Cydonia oblonga
Cymbopogon citratus
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Dalbergia sissooKNApSAcK Database
Daucus carotaKNApSAcK Database
Daucus carota ssp. sativus
Desmodium intortumKNApSAcK Database
Desmodium uncinatumKNApSAcK Database
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Diospyros
Diospyros kaki
Diospyros virginiana
Dromaius novaehollandiae
Durio zibethinus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elaeis
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomum
Empetrum nigrum
Equus caballus
Eragrostis tef
Eriobotrya japonica
Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Eutrema japonicum
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fagopyrum tataricum
Fagus
Feijoa sellowiana
Ficus carica
Flammulina velutipes
Foeniculum vulgare
Fragaria x ananassa
Gallus gallus
Garcinia mangostana
Gaylussacia baccata
Ginkgo biloba
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosa
Hedysarum alpinum
Helianthus annuus L.
Helianthus tuberosus
Hibiscus sabbariffa
Hippophae rhamnoides
Hordeum vulgare
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verum
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea batatas
Juglans
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra L.
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusKNApSAcK Database
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria siceraria
Lagopus muta
Lathyrus sativus
Laurus nobilis L.
Lens culinarisKNApSAcK Database
Lentinus edodes
Lepidium sativum
Leporidae
Lepus timidus
Levisticum officinale
Linum usitatissimum
Liriodendron tulipiferaKNApSAcK Database
Litchi chinensis
Lotononis angolensisKNApSAcK Database
Lotononis bainesiiKNApSAcK Database
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus
Lupinus albus
Macadamia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Macroptilium atropurpureumKNApSAcK Database
Macroptilium bracteatumKNApSAcK Database
Macroptilium lathyroidesKNApSAcK Database
Macrotyloma axillareKNApSAcK Database
Macrotyloma uniflorumKNApSAcK Database
Malpighia emarginata
Malus
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Marsdenia tomentosaKNApSAcK Database
Matricaria recutita
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Medicago sativaKNApSAcK Database
Melanitta fusca
Meleagris gallopavo
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha spicata
Mentha x piperita
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Momordica charantia
Morchellaceae
Morella rubra
Moringa oleifera
Morus
Morus nigra
Murraya paniculataKNApSAcK Database
Musa acuminata
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Myrica
Myristica fragrans
Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nephelium lappaceum
Numida meleagris
Nuphar lutea
Ocimum basilicum
Odocoileus
Oenothera biennis
Olea europaea
Opuntia
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia macrorhiza
Origanum majorana
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgare
Origanum X majoricum
Oryctolagus
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativaKNApSAcK Database
Ovis aries
Pachyrhizus erosus
Panax ginsengKNApSAcK Database
Pangium edule
Panicum miliaceum
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
Pediomelum esculentum
Perideridia oregana
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgarisKNApSAcK Database
Phasianidae
Phasianus colchicus
Phoenix dactylifera
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllostachys edulis
Physalis
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisum
Pinus
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum L.
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatus
Polygonum alpinum
Populus maximowicziiKNApSAcK Database
Populus nigraKNApSAcK Database
Portulaca oleracea
Pouteria sapota
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus aviumKNApSAcK Database
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasus
Prunus domestica
Prunus dulcis
Prunus persica
Prunus persica var. nucipersica
Prunus persica var. persica
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajava
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Pueraria PhaseoloidesKNApSAcK Database
Punica granatum
Pyrus communis
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus
Raphanus sativus
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rheum rhabarbarum
Rhodiola kirilowiiKNApSAcK Database
Rhodiola roseaKNApSAcK Database
Rhynchosia beddomeiKNApSAcK Database
Rhynchosia hirtaKNApSAcK Database
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Rosa
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilis
Rumex
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix pulchra
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia officinalis
Salvia rosmarinus
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra L.
Satureja hortensis L.
Satureja montana
Scorzonera hispanica
Sebertia acuminataKNApSAcK Database
Secale cereale
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosa
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum L.KNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum
Solanum melongena
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosumKNApSAcK Database
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolor
Spinacia oleraceaKNApSAcK Database
Struthio camelus
Stylosanthes guianensisKNApSAcK Database
Stylosanthes humilisKNApSAcK Database
Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa domestica
Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tamarindus indica
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thelesperma
Theobroma cacaoFooDB
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Triticum
Triticum aestivumKNApSAcK Database
Triticum durum
Triticum spelta
Triticum turanicum
Typha angustifolia
Vaccinium
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Vanilla
Verbena officinalis
Viburnum edule
Vicia faba
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularis
Vigna mungo
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
Vitis
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Xylopia poilaneiKNApSAcK Database
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinale
Zizania
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Phoma medicaginisKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyclohexanols. Cyclohexanols are compounds containing an alcohol group attached to a cyclohexane ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassAlcohols and polyols
Direct ParentCyclohexanols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cyclohexanol
  • Sugar alcohol
  • Cyclitol or derivatives
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point225 °CNot Available
Boiling Point339.10 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility143 mg/mL at 19 °CWishart, D. S., Tzur, D., Knox, C., Eisner, R., Guo, A. C., Young, N., ... & Querengesser, L. (2007). HMDB: the human metabolome database. Nucleic acids research, 35(suppl_1), D521-D526.
LogP1.680The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility485 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-3.8ChemAxon
logS0.43ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.29ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area121.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity35.78 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000211
DrugBank IDDB13178
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB010547
KNApSAcK IDC00001164
Chemspider ID10239179
KEGG Compound IDC00137
BioCyc IDMYO-INOSITOL
BiGG ID33990
Wikipedia LinkInositol
METLIN ID5221
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17268
Good Scents IDrw1251521
References
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Shetty HU, Holloway HW, Rapoport SI: Capillary gas chromatography combined with ion trap detection for quantitative profiling of polyols in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Anal Biochem. 1995 Jan 1;224(1):279-85. [PubMed:7710082 ]
  3. Kusmierz J, DeGeorge JJ, Sweeney D, May C, Rapoport SI: Quantitative analysis of polyols in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. J Chromatogr. 1989 Dec 29;497:39-48. [PubMed:2625478 ]
  4. Gryz EA, Galicka-Latala D, Szczudlik A, Sieradzki J: [Etiopathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy]. Przegl Lek. 2000;57(12):727-31. [PubMed:11398597 ]
  5. Kim MO, Im JH, Choi CG, Lee MC: Proton MR spectroscopic findings in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. Mov Disord. 1998 May;13(3):570-5. [PubMed:9613757 ]
  6. Wuarin-Bierman L, Zahnd GR: Current aspects of research on the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Diabete Metab. 1986 Dec;12(6):319-24. [PubMed:3028879 ]
  7. Reznek RH, Salway JG, Thomas PK: Plasma-myoinositol concentrations in uraemic neuropathy. Lancet. 1977 Mar 26;1(8013):675-6. [PubMed:66475 ]
  8. Scully SE, Stebner FC, Yoest SM: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic findings in neuro-Behcet disease. Neurologist. 2004 Nov;10(6):323-6. [PubMed:15518598 ]
  9. Cordoba J, Hinojosa C, Sampedro F, Alonso J, Rovira A, Quiroga S, Esteban R, Guardia J: Usefulness of magnetic resonance spectroscopy for diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy in a patient with relapsing confusional syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2001 Nov;46(11):2451-5. [PubMed:11713951 ]
  10. Chang L, Ernst T, Leonido-Yee M, Witt M, Speck O, Walot I, Miller EN: Highly active antiretroviral therapy reverses brain metabolite abnormalities in mild HIV dementia. Neurology. 1999 Sep 11;53(4):782-9. [PubMed:10489041 ]
  11. Ashwal S, Holshouser B, Tong K, Serna T, Osterdock R, Gross M, Kido D: Proton spectroscopy detected myoinositol in children with traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Res. 2004 Oct;56(4):630-8. Epub 2004 Aug 4. [PubMed:15295080 ]
  12. Servo C, Pitkanen E: Variation in polyol levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 1975 Dec;11(6):575-80. [PubMed:1205026 ]
  13. Utriainen M, Komu M, Vuorinen V, Lehikoinen P, Sonninen P, Kurki T, Utriainen T, Roivainen A, Kalimo H, Minn H: Evaluation of brain tumor metabolism with [11C]choline PET and 1H-MRS. J Neurooncol. 2003 May;62(3):329-38. [PubMed:12777086 ]
  14. Grzelec H: [Pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic neuropathy]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1991 Jul-Aug;25(4):477-84. [PubMed:1666426 ]
  15. Ernst T, Itti E, Itti L, Chang L: Changes in cerebral metabolism are detected prior to perfusion changes in early HIV-CMC: A coregistered (1)H MRS and SPECT study. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2000 Dec;12(6):859-65. [PubMed:11105023 ]
  16. Hallman M, Saugstad OD, Porreco RP, Epstein BL, Gluck L: Role of myoinositol in regulation of surfactant phospholipids in the newborn. Early Hum Dev. 1985 Jan;10(3-4):245-54. [PubMed:3838720 ]
  17. Chang L, Lee PL, Yiannoutsos CT, Ernst T, Marra CM, Richards T, Kolson D, Schifitto G, Jarvik JG, Miller EN, Lenkinski R, Gonzalez G, Navia BA: A multicenter in vivo proton-MRS study of HIV-associated dementia and its relationship to age. Neuroimage. 2004 Dec;23(4):1336-47. [PubMed:15589098 ]
  18. Rysz J, Bartnicki P, Blaszczak R, Kujawski K, Cialkowska-Rysz A, Olszewski R, Markuszewski L: [Anti-inflammatory action of myoinositol in renal insufficiency]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2006 Feb;20(116):180-3. [PubMed:16708635 ]
  19. Lee PL, Yiannoutsos CT, Ernst T, Chang L, Marra CM, Jarvik JG, Richards TL, Kwok EW, Kolson DL, Simpson D, Tang CY, Schifitto G, Ketonen LM, Meyerhoff DJ, Lenkinski RE, Gonzalez RG, Navia BA: A multi-center 1H MRS study of the AIDS dementia complex: validation and preliminary analysis. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2003 Jun;17(6):625-33. [PubMed:12766890 ]
  20. Galasko GT, Bao Y, Broomfield SJ, Hooper NM, Turner AJ, Larner J: Circulating factors and insulin resistance. I. A novel myoinositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate phosphoglycan insulin antagonist from human plasma is elevated in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Aug;80(8):2419-29. [PubMed:7629237 ]
  21. Yiannoutsos CT, Ernst T, Chang L, Lee PL, Richards T, Marra CM, Meyerhoff DJ, Jarvik JG, Kolson D, Schifitto G, Ellis RJ, Swindells S, Simpson DM, Miller EN, Gonzalez RG, Navia BA: Regional patterns of brain metabolites in AIDS dementia complex. Neuroimage. 2004 Nov;23(3):928-35. [PubMed:15528093 ]