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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2006-05-22 15:12:24 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 23:58:21 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000691
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameErythritol
DescriptionErythritol is a sugar alcohol (or polyol), used as a food additive and sugar substitute. It is naturally occurring and is made from corn using enzymes and fermentation. Its formula is C4H10O4, or HO(CH2)(CHOH)2(CH2)OH; specifically, one particular stereoisomer with that formula. Erythritol is 60–70% as sweet as sucrose (table sugar), yet it is almost noncaloric and does not affect blood sugar or cause tooth decay. Erythritol occurs widely in nature and has been found to occur naturally in several foods including wine, sake, beer, watermelon, pear, grape, and soy sauce. Evidence indicates that erythritol also exists endogenously in the tissues and body fluids of humans and animals. Erythritol is absorbed from the proximal intestine by passive diffusion in a manner similar to that of many low molecular weight organic molecules which do not have associated active transport systems. The rate of absorption is related to their molecular size. It passes through the intestinal membranes at a faster rate than larger molecules such as mannitol or glucose. In diabetics, erythritol has also been shown to be rapidly absorbed and excreted unchanged in the urine. Following absorption, ingested erythritol is rapidly distributed throughout the body and has been reported to occur in hepatocytes, pancreatic cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Erythritol also has been reported to cross the human placenta and to pass slowly from the plasma into the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (PMID: 9862657 ). Erythritol is found to be associated with ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiency, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Data?1628564080
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R,3S)-Butane-1,2,3,4-tetrolChEBI
ErythritChEBI
ErythriteChEBI
Erythro-tetritolChEBI
ErythrolChEBI
L-ErythritolChEBI
MESO-erythritolChEBI
MesoerythritolChEBI
PhyciteChEBI
PhycitolChEBI
1,2,3,4-ButanetetrolHMDB
AntierythriteHMDB
ButanetetrolHMDB
C*EridexHMDB
ErythroglucinHMDB
I-erythritolHMDB
L-(-)-ThreitolHMDB
L-ThreitolHMDB
Lichen sugarHMDB
Meso-eythritolHMDB
PayciteHMDB
TetrahydroxybutaneHMDB
1,2,3,4-TetrahydroxybutaneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H10O4
Average Mass122.1198 Da
Monoisotopic Mass122.05791 Da
IUPAC Name(2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol
Traditional Nameerythritol
CAS Registry Number149-32-6
SMILES
[H]OC([H])([H])[C@]([H])(O[H])[C@]([H])(O[H])C([H])([H])O[H]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H10O4/c5-1-3(7)4(8)2-6/h3-8H,1-2H2/t3-,4+
InChI KeyUNXHWFMMPAWVPI-ZXZARUISSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 252 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 50 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 75 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 101 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 126 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 151 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 176 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 201 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 226 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 400 MHz, D2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Carum carvi L.KNApSAcK Database
Citrus sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Curcuma domesticaKNApSAcK Database
Delonix regiaKNApSAcK Database
Murraya paniculataKNApSAcK Database
Primula spp.KNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicum L.KNApSAcK Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar alcohols. These are hydrogenated forms of carbohydrate in which the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar alcohols
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point121.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point330.00 to 331.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility610 mg/mL at 22 °CNot Available
LogP-2.29HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1160 g/LALOGPS
logP-2ALOGPS
logP-2.5ChemAxon
logS0.98ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.04ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.92 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity26.48 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.62 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
External Links
HMDB IDHMDB0002994
DrugBank IDDB04481
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000371
KNApSAcK IDC00001161
Chemspider ID192963
KEGG Compound IDC00503
BioCyc IDERYTHRITOL
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkErythritol
METLIN ID140
PubChem Compound222285
PDB IDMRY
ChEBI ID17113
Good Scents IDrw1257251
References
General References
  1. Verhoeven NM, Huck JH, Roos B, Struys EA, Salomons GS, Douwes AC, van der Knaap MS, Jakobs C: Transaldolase deficiency: liver cirrhosis associated with a new inborn error in the pentose phosphate pathway. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 May;68(5):1086-92. Epub 2001 Mar 27. [PubMed:11283793 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Prandi D: Canalicular bile production in man. Eur J Clin Invest. 1975 Feb;5(1):1-6. [PubMed:1122919 ]
  4. Makinen KK, Isotupa KP, Kivilompolo T, Makinen PL, Toivanen J, Soderling E: Comparison of erythritol and xylitol saliva stimulants in the control of dental plaque and mutans streptococci. Caries Res. 2001 Mar-Apr;35(2):129-35. [PubMed:11275673 ]
  5. Hino H, Kobayasi T, Asboe-Hansen G: Desmosome formation in normal human epidermal cell culture. Acta Derm Venereol. 1982;62(3):185-91. [PubMed:6179356 ]
  6. Bornet FR, Blayo A, Dauchy F, Slama G: Gastrointestinal response and plasma and urine determinations in human subjects given erythritol. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1996 Oct;24(2 Pt 2):S296-302. [PubMed:8933646 ]
  7. Noda K, Nakayama K, Oku T: Serum glucose and insulin levels and erythritol balance after oral administration of erythritol in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994 Apr;48(4):286-92. [PubMed:8039489 ]
  8. Makinen KK, Saag M, Isotupa KP, Olak J, Nommela R, Soderling E, Makinen PL: Similarity of the effects of erythritol and xylitol on some risk factors of dental caries. Caries Res. 2005 May-Jun;39(3):207-15. [PubMed:15914983 ]
  9. Servo C, Palo J, Pitkanen E: Gas chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric identification of polyols in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Acta Neurol Scand. 1977 Aug;56(2):104-10. [PubMed:899714 ]
  10. Utili R, Abernathy CO, Zimmerman HJ: Studies on the effects of C. coli endotoxin on canalicular bile formation in the isolated perfused rat liver. J Lab Clin Med. 1977 Mar;89(3):471-82. [PubMed:320281 ]
  11. Munro IC, Berndt WO, Borzelleca JF, Flamm G, Lynch BS, Kennepohl E, Bar EA, Modderman J: Erythritol: an interpretive summary of biochemical, metabolic, toxicological and clinical data. Food Chem Toxicol. 1998 Dec;36(12):1139-74. [PubMed:9862657 ]