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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 23:58:20 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000687
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameCarnosine
DescriptionCarnosine, which is also known as beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide consisting of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. It is found exclusively in animal tissues and is naturally produced in the body by the liver. Carnosine has a pKa value of 6.83, Making it a good buffer for the pH range of animal muscles. Since beta-alanine is a non-proteogenic amino acid and is not incorporated into proteins, carnosine can be stored at relatively high concentrations (millimolar) in muscles, with concentrations as high as 17–25 mmol/kg (dry muscle). Carnosine is also highly concentrated in brain tissues. Carnosine has been shown to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes formed from peroxidation of fatty acids during oxidative stress. The antioxidant mechanism of carnosine is attributed to its chelating effect against divalent metal ions, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, as well as its ROS and free radicals scavenging ability (PMID: 16406688 ). Carnosine also buffers muscle cells, and acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Carnosine has the potential to suppress many of the biochemical changes that accompany ageing (e.G. Protein oxidation, glycation, AGE formation, and cross-linking) and associated pathologies (PMID: 16804013 ). Some autistic patients take carnosine as a dietary supplement and attribute an improvement in their condition to it. Supplemental carnosine may increase corticosterone levels. This may explain the "hyperactivity" seen in autistic subjects at higher doses. A positive association between muscle tissue carnosine concentration and exercise performance has been found. β-Alanine supplementation is thought increase exercise performance by promoting carnosine production in muscle. Exercise has conversely been found to increase muscle carnosine concentrations, and muscle carnosine content is higher in athletes engaging in anaerobic exercise. Carnosine is also a biomarker for the consumption of meat. Elevated levels of urinary and plasma carnosine are associated with carnosinuria (also known as carnosinemia), which is an inborn error of metabolism. Caused by a deficiency of the enzyme carnosinase. Carnosinas cleaves carnosine into its constituent amino acids: β-Alanine and histidine. Carnonsinemia results in an excess of carnosine in the urine, cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and nervous tissue. A variety of neurological symptoms have been associated with carnosinemia. They include: Hypotonia, developmental delay, mental retardation, degeneration of axons, sensory neuropathy, tremors, demyelinization, gray matter anomalies, myoclonic seizures, and loss of purkinje fibers.
(2S)-2-(3-Aminopropanamido)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acidChEBI
Carnosine, (D-his)-isomerHMDB
Hydrochloride, carnosineHMDB
L CarnosineHMDB
Carnosine hydrochlorideHMDB
beta AlanylhistidineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H14N4O3
Average Mass226.2325 Da
Monoisotopic Mass226.10659 Da
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-(3-aminopropanamido)-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid
Traditional Nameβ-alanyl-L-histidine
CAS Registry Number305-84-0
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, simulated)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)v.dorna83@yahoo.comNot AvailableNot Available2021-08-02View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Daphnia magnaLOTUS Database
Daphnia pulexLOTUS Database
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Juncus roemerianusLOTUS Database
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Opuntia ficus-indicaLOTUS Database
Ovis ariesFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hybrid peptides. Hybrid peptides are compounds containing at least two different types of amino acids (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) linked to each other through a peptide bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassHybrid peptides
Direct ParentHybrid peptides
Alternative Parents
  • Hybrid peptide
  • Histidine or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-l-alpha-amino acid
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Imidazolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Amino acid
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point253 - 256 °CNot Available
Boiling Point656.00 to 657.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility384 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.972 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility11.1 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.13ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area121.1 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity55.56 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB11695
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012937
KNApSAcK IDC00052222
Chemspider ID388363
KEGG Compound IDC00386
BiGG ID1800369
Wikipedia LinkCarnosine
PubChem Compound439224
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15727
Good Scents IDrw1253461
General References
  1. Park YJ, Volpe SL, Decker EA: Quantitation of carnosine in humans plasma after dietary consumption of beef. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 15;53(12):4736-9. [PubMed:15941308 ]
  2. Guiotto A, Calderan A, Ruzza P, Borin G: Carnosine and carnosine-related antioxidants: a review. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(20):2293-315. [PubMed:16181134 ]
  3. Hipkiss AR, Preston JE, Himsworth DT, Worthington VC, Keown M, Michaelis J, Lawrence J, Mateen A, Allende L, Eagles PA, Abbott NJ: Pluripotent protective effects of carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:37-53. [PubMed:9928418 ]
  4. Guiotto A, Calderan A, Ruzza P, Osler A, Rubini C, Jo DG, Mattson MP, Borin G: Synthesis and evaluation of neuroprotective alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde scavenger histidyl-containing analogues of carnosine. J Med Chem. 2005 Sep 22;48(19):6156-61. [PubMed:16162015 ]
  5. Hipkiss AR, Brownson C: Carnosine reacts with protein carbonyl groups: another possible role for the anti-ageing peptide? Biogerontology. 2000;1(3):217-23. [PubMed:11707898 ]
  6. Furst P: Amino acid metabolism in uremia. J Am Coll Nutr. 1989 Aug;8(4):310-23. [PubMed:2674258 ]
  7. Lee YT, Hsu CC, Lin MH, Liu KS, Yin MC: Histidine and carnosine delay diabetic deterioration in mice and protect human low density lipoprotein against oxidation and glycation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 18;513(1-2):145-50. Epub 2005 Apr 2. [PubMed:15878720 ]
  8. Hipkiss AR, Brownson C, Bertani MF, Ruiz E, Ferro A: Reaction of carnosine with aged proteins: another protective process? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;959:285-94. [PubMed:11976203 ]
  9. Mannion AF, Jakeman PM, Dunnett M, Harris RC, Willan PL: Carnosine and anserine concentrations in the quadriceps femoris muscle of healthy humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;64(1):47-50. [PubMed:1735411 ]
  10. Hipkiss AR, Brownson C, Carrier MJ: Carnosine, the anti-ageing, anti-oxidant dipeptide, may react with protein carbonyl groups. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001 Sep 15;122(13):1431-45. [PubMed:11470131 ]
  11. Suzuki Y, Ito O, Mukai N, Takahashi H, Takamatsu K: High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting. Jpn J Physiol. 2002 Apr;52(2):199-205. [PubMed:12139778 ]
  12. Kang JH, Kim KS, Choi SY, Kwon HY, Won MH, Kang TC: Protection by carnosine-related dipeptides against hydrogen peroxide-mediated ceruloplasmin modification. Mol Cells. 2002 Feb 28;13(1):107-12. [PubMed:11911459 ]
  13. Willi SM, Zhang Y, Hill JB, Phelan MC, Michaelis RC, Holden KR: A deletion in the long arm of chromosome 18 in a child with serum carnosinase deficiency. Pediatr Res. 1997 Feb;41(2):210-3. [PubMed:9029640 ]
  14. Tallon MJ, Harris RC, Boobis LH, Fallowfield JL, Wise JA: The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Nov;19(4):725-9. [PubMed:16287364 ]
  15. Mozdzan M, Szemraj J, Rysz J, Nowak D: Antioxidant properties of carnosine re-evaluated with oxidizing systems involving iron and copper ions. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 May;96(5):352-60. [PubMed:15853927 ]
  16. Jackson MC, Lenney JF: The distribution of carnosine and related dipeptides in rat and human tissues. Inflamm Res. 1996 Mar;45(3):132-5. [PubMed:8689392 ]
  17. Hipkiss AR: Would carnosine or a carnivorous diet help suppress aging and associated pathologies? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 May;1067:369-74. [PubMed:16804013 ]
  18. Guney Y, Turkcu UO, Hicsonmez A, Andrieu MN, Guney HZ, Bilgihan A, Kurtman C: Carnosine may reduce lung injury caused by radiation therapy. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(5):957-9. Epub 2006 Jan 10. [PubMed:16406688 ]