Np mrd loader

You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on NP-MRD.
Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-19 19:56:46 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000629
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameCholine
DescriptionCholine is a basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. Choline is now considered to be an essential vitamin. While humans can synthesize small amounts (by converting phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine), it must be consumed in the diet to maintain health. Required levels are between 425 mg/day (female) and 550 mg/day (male). Milk, eggs, liver, and peanuts are especially rich in choline. Most choline is found in phospholipids, namely phosphatidylcholine or lecithin. Choline can be oxidized to form betaine, which is a methyl source for many reactions (i.E. Conversion of homocysteine into methionine). Lack of sufficient amounts of choline in the diet can lead to a fatty liver condition and general liver damage. This arises from the lack of VLDL, which is necessary to transport fats away from the liver. Choline deficiency also leads to elevated serum levels of alanine amino transferase and is associated with increased incidence of liver cancer.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
BilineurineChEBI
CHOLINE ionChEBI
N,N,N-Trimethylethanol-ammoniumChEBI
N-TrimethylethanolamineChEBI
TrimethylethanolamineChEBI
Choline cationKegg
(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethyl ammoniumHMDB
(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammoniumHMDB
(beta-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammoniumHMDB
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-ethanaminiumHMDB
2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminiumHMDB
BiocolinaHMDB
BiocolineHMDB
CholinumHMDB
HepacholineHMDB
HormoclineHMDB
LipotrilHMDB
N,N,N-TrimethylethanolammoniumHMDB
NeocolinaHMDB
ParesanHMDB
Choline O-sulfateHMDB
Citrate, cholineHMDB
FagineHMDB
Hydroxide, cholineHMDB
VidineHMDB
BursineHMDB
Chloride, cholineHMDB
Choline chlorideHMDB
Choline citrateHMDB
Bitartrate, cholineHMDB
Choline bitartrateHMDB
Choline hydroxideHMDB
Choline O sulfateHMDB
O-Sulfate, cholineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H14NO
Average Mass104.1708 Da
Monoisotopic Mass104.10754 Da
IUPAC Name(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylazanium
Traditional Namecholine
CAS Registry Number62-49-7
SMILES
C[N+](C)(C)CCO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H14NO/c1-6(2,3)4-5-7/h7H,4-5H2,1-3H3/q+1
InChI KeyOEYIOHPDSNJKLS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-19View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-19View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)varshavi.d26@gmail.comNot AvailableNot Available2021-07-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)varshavi.d26@gmail.comNot AvailableNot Available2021-07-29View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Abramis bramaFooDB
Achillea millefoliumLOTUS Database
Achillea setaceaLOTUS Database
AcipenserFooDB
AcipenseridaeFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Adonis vernalisLOTUS Database
Adonis vernalis L.KNApSAcK Database
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Alosa sapidissimaFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica acutilobaLOTUS Database
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
AnguillaFooDB
AnguilliformesFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Antirrhinum majusLOTUS Database
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemia salinaLOTUS Database
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
AstacideaFooDB
Atriplex halimusLOTUS Database
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Bauhinia candicansKNApSAcK Database
Bauhinia forficataLOTUS Database
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
BuccinidaeFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papayaKNApSAcK Database
Carica papaya L.FooDB
CarideaFooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaKNApSAcK Database
Catharanthus roseusLOTUS Database
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chelidonium majusLOTUS Database
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chondrus crispusFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Chrysanthemum vulgareLOTUS Database
Cicer arietinumFooDB
CichlidaeFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Clupea harengus harengusFooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Combretum micranthumKNApSAcK Database
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
CoregonusFooDB
Coriandrum sativumLOTUS Database
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crassostrea virginicaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Cyprinus carpioFooDB
Daphnia magnaLOTUS Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Desmarestia viridisLOTUS Database
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Entoloma rhodopoliumLOTUS Database
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eranthemum pulchellumLOTUS Database
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Esox luciusFooDB
EucheumaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eupatorium serotinumLOTUS Database
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Fumaria capreolataLOTUS Database
GadiformesFooDB
GadusFooDB
Gadus macrocephalusFooDB
Gadus morhuaFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
GastropodaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
Gomphrena martianaLOTUS Database
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hemerocallis fulvaLOTUS Database
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
HippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus stenolepisFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homarus americanusFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Ictalurus punctatusFooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
LaminariaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Leonurus japonicusLOTUS Database
Lepidium sativumFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Ligusticum chuanxiongLOTUS Database
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
LutjanidaeFooDB
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Magnolia accuminataLOTUS Database
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria chamomillaLOTUS Database
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mentzelia decapetalaLOTUS Database
Merlangius merlangusFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Micropogonias undulatusFooDB
Microstomus kittFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus australisLOTUS Database
Morus nigraFooDB
Mugil cephalusFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
MytilidaeFooDB
Mytilus edulisFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
NephropidaeFooDB
Nierembergia linariifoliaLOTUS Database
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Octopus vulgarisFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
Oncorhynchus gorbuschaFooDB
Oncorhynchus ketaFooDB
Oncorhynchus kisutchFooDB
Oncorhynchus mykissFooDB
Oncorhynchus nerkaFooDB
Oncorhynchus tshawytschaFooDB
Onopordum acanthiumKNApSAcK Database
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Osmerus mordaxFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
PectinidaeFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
PerciformesFooDB
Perebea mollisLOTUS Database
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
PleuronectiformesFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Poa huecuLOTUS Database
Pollachius pollachiusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus mahalebLOTUS Database
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Pseudo-nitzschia multistriataLOTUS Database
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Ptilota serrataLOTUS Database
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Ramalina fraxineaLOTUS Database
RanidaeFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Reinhardtius hippoglossoidesFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Rhodiola kirilowiiKNApSAcK Database
Rhodiola roseaKNApSAcK Database
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salmo salarFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scomberomorus maculatusFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
SebastesFooDB
Sebastes alutusFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sida spinosaPlant
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
SoleidaeFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
SpirulinaFooDB
SqualiformesFooDB
Stenodus leucichthysFooDB
Stenotomus chrysopsFooDB
Stratiotes aloidesLOTUS Database
StrombidaeFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Synechococcus elongatusLOTUS Database
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
TeuthidaFooDB
Thalassiosira pseudonanaLOTUS Database
Thalictrum revolutumLOTUS Database
ThelespermaFooDB
Thunnus albacaresFooDB
Thunnus thynnusFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tinospora baenzigeriLOTUS Database
Tinospora cordifoliaLOTUS Database
Trachinotus carolinusFooDB
Trachurus symmetricusFooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
Undaria pinnatifidaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Withania somniferaPlant
Xanthium strumariumLOTUS Database
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Xiphias gladiusFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cholines. These are organic compounds containing a N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassQuaternary ammonium salts
Direct ParentCholines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Choline
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Alkanolamine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organic cation
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point302 - 303 °C (chloride salt)Not Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000000 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.61 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.6ALOGPS
logP-4.7ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.97ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity42.19 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.57 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000097
DrugBank IDDB00122
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000710
KNApSAcK IDC00007298
Chemspider ID299
KEGG Compound IDC00114
BioCyc IDCHOLINE
BiGG ID33910
Wikipedia LinkCholine
METLIN ID56
PubChem Compound305
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15354
Good Scents IDrw1600511
References
General References
  1. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. [PubMed:7762816 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  3. Van Hove JL, Lazeyras F, Zeisel SH, Bottiglieri T, Hyland K, Charles HC, Gray L, Jaeken J, Kahler SG: One-methyl group metabolism in non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia: mildly elevated cerebrospinal fluid homocysteine levels. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1998 Dec;21(8):799-811. [PubMed:9870205 ]
  4. Walter A, Korth U, Hilgert M, Hartmann J, Weichel O, Hilgert M, Fassbender K, Schmitt A, Klein J: Glycerophosphocholine is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer patients. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Nov-Dec;25(10):1299-303. [PubMed:15465626 ]
  5. Kohlmeier M, da Costa KA, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH: Genetic variation of folate-mediated one-carbon transfer pathway predicts susceptibility to choline deficiency in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 1;102(44):16025-30. Epub 2005 Oct 18. [PubMed:16236726 ]
  6. Babb SM, Ke Y, Lange N, Kaufman MJ, Renshaw PF, Cohen BM: Oral choline increases choline metabolites in human brain. Psychiatry Res. 2004 Jan 15;130(1):1-9. [PubMed:14972364 ]
  7. Pal K, Sharma U, Gupta DK, Pratap A, Jagannathan NR: Metabolite profile of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with spina bifida: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Feb 1;30(3):E68-72. [PubMed:15681999 ]
  8. Farsad M, Schiavina R, Castellucci P, Nanni C, Corti B, Martorana G, Canini R, Grigioni W, Boschi S, Marengo M, Pettinato C, Salizzoni E, Monetti N, Franchi R, Fanti S: Detection and localization of prostate cancer: correlation of (11)C-choline PET/CT with histopathologic step-section analysis. J Nucl Med. 2005 Oct;46(10):1642-9. [PubMed:16204714 ]
  9. Yanagawa T, Watanabe H, Inoue T, Ahmed AR, Tomiyoshi K, Shinozaki T, Oriuchi N, Endo K, Takagishi K: Carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography in musculoskeletal tumors: comparison with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2003 Mar-Apr;27(2):175-82. [PubMed:12703009 ]
  10. Zeisel SH: Nutritional importance of choline for brain development. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):621S-626S. [PubMed:15640516 ]
  11. Garner SC, Chou SC, Mar MH, Coleman RA, Zeisel SH: Characterization of choline metabolism and secretion by human placental trophoblasts in culture. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Jul 1;1168(3):358-64. [PubMed:8323976 ]
  12. Rumpel H, Ho GL, Chan LL, Lim WE, Chong VF: Concomitant diminishing magnetization-transfer effect and increasing choline level in radiation-induced temporal-lobe changes. Australas Radiol. 2002 Sep;46(3):340-4. [PubMed:12196251 ]
  13. Zeisel SH: Choline: critical role during fetal development and dietary requirements in adults. Annu Rev Nutr. 2006;26:229-50. [PubMed:16848706 ]
  14. Ozarda Ilcol Y, Ozyurt G, Kilicturgay S, Uncu G, Ulus IH: The decline in serum choline concentration in humans during and after surgery is associated with the elevation of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin and beta-endorphin concentrations. Neurosci Lett. 2002 May 10;324(1):41-4. [PubMed:11983290 ]
  15. Chen CY, Li CW, Kuo YT, Jaw TS, Wu DK, Jao JC, Hsu JS, Liu GC: Early response of hepatocellular carcinoma to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization: choline levels and MR diffusion constants--initial experience. Radiology. 2006 May;239(2):448-56. Epub 2006 Mar 28. [PubMed:16569781 ]
  16. Buchman AL, Ament ME, Sohel M, Dubin M, Jenden DJ, Roch M, Pownall H, Farley W, Awal M, Ahn C: Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral nutrition: proof of a human choline requirement: a placebo-controlled trial. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2001 Sep-Oct;25(5):260-8. [PubMed:11531217 ]
  17. da Costa KA, Badea M, Fischer LM, Zeisel SH: Elevated serum creatine phosphokinase in choline-deficient humans: mechanistic studies in C2C12 mouse myoblasts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):163-70. [PubMed:15213044 ]
  18. Katz-Brull R, Margalit R, Degani H: Differential routing of choline in implanted breast cancer and normal organs. Magn Reson Med. 2001 Jul;46(1):31-8. [PubMed:11443708 ]
  19. Ilcol YO, Donmez O, Yavuz M, Dilek K, Yurtkuran M, Ulus IH: Free choline and phospholipid-bound choline concentrations in serum and dialysate during peritoneal dialysis in children and adults. Clin Biochem. 2002 Jun;35(4):307-13. [PubMed:12135694 ]
  20. Jacob RA, Jenden DJ, Allman-Farinelli MA, Swendseid ME: Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. J Nutr. 1999 Mar;129(3):712-7. [PubMed:10082779 ]
  21. Kinchen JM, Mohney RP, Pappan KL: Long-Chain Acylcholines Link Butyrylcholinesterase to Regulation of Non-neuronal Cholinergic Signaling. J Proteome Res. 2021 Nov 10. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00538. [PubMed:34758617 ]