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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-10 19:17:11 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000613
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameAcetaldehyde
DescriptionAcetaldehyde, also known as ethanal, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain aldehydes. These are an aldehyde with a chain length containing between 2 and 5 carbon atoms. Acetaldehyde exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Within humans, acetaldehyde participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, acetaldehyde can be biosynthesized from ethanol which is mediated by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase 1B. Acetaldehyde can also be converted to acetic acid by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (mitochondrial) and aldehyde dehydrogenase X (mitochondrial). The main method of production is the oxidation of ethylene by the Wacker process, which involves oxidation of ethylene using a homogeneous palladium/copper system: 2 CH2CH2 + O2 → 2 CH3CHO. In the 1970s, the world capacity of the Wacker-Hoechst direct oxidation process exceeded 2 million tonnes annually. In humans, acetaldehyde is involved in disulfiram action pathway. Acetaldehyde is an aldehydic, ethereal, and fruity tasting compound. Outside of the human body, acetaldehyde is found, on average, in the highest concentration in a few different foods, such as sweet oranges, pineapples, and mandarin orange (clementine, tangerine) and in a lower concentration in. Acetaldehyde has also been detected, but not quantified in several different foods, such as malabar plums, malus (crab apple), rose hips, natal plums, and medlars. This could make acetaldehyde a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. In condensation reactions, acetaldehyde is prochiral. Acetaldehyde is formally rated as a possible carcinogen (by IARC 2B) and is also a potentially toxic compound. Acetaldehyde has been found to be associated with several diseases such as alcoholism, ulcerative colitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and crohn's disease; also acetaldehyde has been linked to the inborn metabolic disorders including aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (III) sulfate is used to reoxidize the mercury back to the mercury. Acetaldehyde was first observed by the Swedish pharmacist/chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1774); it was then investigated by the French chemists Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy and Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1800), and the German chemists Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1821, 1822, 1832) and Justus von Liebig (1835). At room temperature, acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) is more stable than vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH) by 42.7 KJ/mol: Overall the keto-enol tautomerization occurs slowly but is catalyzed by acids. The level at which an average consumer could detect acetaldehyde is still considerably lower than any toxicity. Pathways of exposure include air, water, land, or groundwater, as well as drink and smoke. Acetaldehyde is also created by thermal degradation or ultraviolet photo-degradation of some thermoplastic polymers during or after manufacture. The water industry generally recognizes 20–40 ppb as the taste/odor threshold for acetaldehyde. The level at which an average consumer could detect acetaldehyde is still considerably lower than any toxicity.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
AcetaldehydChEBI
AcetaldehydesChEBI
Acetic aldehydeChEBI
AzetaldehydChEBI
EthanalChEBI
Ethyl aldehydeChEBI
AldehydeHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2H4O
Average Mass44.0526 Da
Monoisotopic Mass44.02621 Da
IUPAC Nameacetaldehyde
Traditional Nameacetaldehyde
CAS Registry Number75-07-0
SMILES
CC=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H4O/c1-2-3/h2H,1H3
InChI KeyIKHGUXGNUITLKF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 252 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 50 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 75 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 101 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 126 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 151 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 176 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 201 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 226 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-10View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-10View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
    • J. F. Carson and Francis F. Wong. The Volatile Flavor Components of Onions. J. Agric. Food Chem. ...
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
    • Alexander J. MacLeod, Glesni MacLeod, G. Subramanian. Volatile aroma constituents of celery. Phyt...
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusKNApSAcK Database
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
    • Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan. Induction of Volatile Compounds in Broccoli by Postharve...
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Campylobacter jejuni-
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Clostridium difficile-
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabicaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusKNApSAcK Database
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
OdocoileusFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaKNApSAcK Database
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
ThelespermaFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
    • LF. Flora and RC. Wiley. Flora and Wiley., 2007. Sweet corn aroma, chemical components and relati...
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coli KO11KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Staphylococcus aureusKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain aldehydes. These are an aldehyde with a chain length containing between 2 and 5 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentShort-chain aldehydes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Short-chain aldehyde
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-123 °CNot Available
Boiling Point20.00 to 21.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.34TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TEST SUBMISSIONS (TSCATS) (https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_Report.cfm?Lab=&dirEntryId=2855)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility225 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.01ALOGPS
logP-0.38ChemAxon
logS0.71ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.73ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area17.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity11.72 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability4.48 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000990
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008297
KNApSAcK IDC00007392
Chemspider ID172
KEGG Compound IDC00084
BioCyc IDACETALD
BiGG ID33792
Wikipedia LinkAcetaldehyde
METLIN ID3200
PubChem Compound177
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15343
Good Scents IDrw1019471
References
General References
  1. Nakamura K, Iwahashi K, Furukawa A, Ameno K, Kinoshita H, Ijiri I, Sekine Y, Suzuki K, Iwata Y, Minabe Y, Mori N: Acetaldehyde adducts in the brain of alcoholics. Arch Toxicol. 2003 Oct;77(10):591-3. Epub 2003 Sep 17. [PubMed:14574447 ]
  2. Takeuchi M, Watai T, Sasaki N, Choei H, Iwaki M, Ashizawa T, Inagaki Y, Yamagishi S, Kikuchi S, Riederer P, Saito T, Bucala R, Kameda Y: Neurotoxicity of acetaldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products for cultured cortical neurons. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003 May;62(5):486-96. [PubMed:12769188 ]
  3. Higuchi S, Matsushita S, Masaki T, Yokoyama A, Kimura M, Suzuki G, Mochizuki H: Influence of genetic variations of ethanol-metabolizing enzymes on phenotypes of alcohol-related disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Oct;1025:472-80. [PubMed:15542751 ]
  4. Oba T, Maeno Y, Ishida K: Differential contribution of clinical amounts of acetaldehyde to skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction in alcoholic myopathy. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(6):791-80. [PubMed:15777233 ]
  5. Nishimura FT, Fukunaga T, Kajiura H, Umeno K, Takakura H, Ono T, Nishijo H: Effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype on cardiovascular and endocrine responses to alcohol in young Japanese subjects. Auton Neurosci. 2002 Nov 29;102(1-2):60-70. [PubMed:12492137 ]
  6. Boyden TW, Silvert MA, Pamenter RW: Acetaldehyde acutely impairs canine testicular testosterone secretion. Eur J Pharmacol. 1981 Apr 9;70(4):571-6. [PubMed:7195339 ]
  7. Theruvathu JA, Jaruga P, Nath RG, Dizdaroglu M, Brooks PJ: Polyamines stimulate the formation of mutagenic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts from acetaldehyde. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Jun 21;33(11):3513-20. Print 2005. [PubMed:15972793 ]
  8. Burton A: Acetaldehyde links alcohol consumption to cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2005 Sep;6(9):643. [PubMed:16161263 ]
  9. Hard ML, Iqbal U, Brien JF, Koren G: Binding of acetaldehyde to human and Guinea pig placentae in vitro. Placenta. 2003 Feb-Mar;24(2-3):149-54. [PubMed:12566241 ]
  10. Forn-Frias C, Sanchis-Segura C: [The possible role of acetaldehyde in the brain damage caused by the chronic consumption of alcohol]. Rev Neurol. 2003 Sep 1-15;37(5):485-93. [PubMed:14533100 ]
  11. Deitrich RA: Acetaldehyde: deja vu du jour. J Stud Alcohol. 2004 Sep;65(5):557-72. [PubMed:15536764 ]
  12. Tyulina OV, Prokopieva VD, Boldyrev AA, Johnson P: Erythrocyte and plasma protein modification in alcoholism: a possible role of acetaldehyde. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 May;1762(5):558-63. Epub 2006 Apr 3. [PubMed:16630710 ]
  13. Morozov IuE, Salomatin EM, Okhotin VE: [Brain acetaldehyde and ethanol: method of determination and diagnostic significance in ethanol poisoning]. Sud Med Ekspert. 2002 Mar-Apr;45(2):35-40. [PubMed:12063798 ]
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