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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-02-17 17:21:51 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000609
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameL-Valine
DescriptionValine (Val) or L-valine is an alpha-amino acid. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. L-valine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.E., The amino acids used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Valine is found in all organisms ranging from bacteria to plants to animals. It is classified as a non-polar, uncharged (at physiological pH) aliphatic amino acid. Valine was first isolated from casein in 1901 by Hermann Emil Fischer. The name valine comes from valeric acid, which in turn is named after the plant valerian due to the presence of valine in the roots of the plant. Valine is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it, and it must be obtained from the diet. Human dietary sources are foods that contain protein, such as meats, dairy products, soy products, beans and legumes. L-valine is a branched chain amino acid (BCAA). The BCAAs consist of leucine, valine and isoleucine (and occasionally threonine). BCAAs are essential amino acids whose carbon structure is marked by a branch point at the beta-carbon position. BCAAs are critical to human life and are particularly involved in stress, energy and muscle metabolism. BCAA supplementation as therapy, both oral and intravenous, in human health and disease holds great promise. BCAAs have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates (glucogenic), leucine solely to fats (ketogenic) and isoleucine being both a glucogenic and a ketogenic amino acid. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 Mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine and isoleucine respectively. Like other branched-chain amino acids, the catabolism of valine starts with the removal of the amino group by transamination, giving alpha-ketoisovalerate, an alpha-keto acid, which is converted to isobutyryl-CoA through oxidative decarboxylation by the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. This is further oxidised and rearranged to succinyl-CoA, which can enter the citric acid cycle. Furthermore, these amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors. Many types of inborn errors of BCAA metabolism exist, and are marked by various abnormalities. The most common form is the maple syrup urine disease, marked by a characteristic urinary odor. Other abnormalities are associated with a wide range of symptoms, such as mental retardation, ataxia, hypoglycemia, spinal muscle atrophy, rash, vomiting and excessive muscle movement. Most forms of BCAA metabolism errors are corrected by dietary restriction of BCAA and at least one form is correctable by supplementation with 10 mg of biotin daily. BCAA are decreased in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis, hepatic coma, cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia or portacaval shunt. Valine in particular, has been established as a useful supplemental therapy to the ailing liver. Valine, like other branched-chain amino acids, is associated with insulin resistance: Higher levels of valine are observed in the blood of diabetic mice, rats, and humans (PMID: 25287287 ). Mice fed a valine deprivation diet for one day have improved insulin sensitivity and feeding of a valine deprivation diet for one week significantly decreases blood glucose levels (PMID: 24684822 ). In diet-induced obese and insulin resistant mice, a diet with decreased levels of valine and the other branched-chain amino acids results in reduced adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity (PMID: 29266268 ). In sickle-cell disease, valine substitutes for the hydrophilic amino acid glutamic acid in hemoglobin. Because valine is hydrophobic, the hemoglobin does not fold correctly. Hypervalinemia is another example of an inborn error of metabolism involving valine.
(2S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acidChEBI
2-Amino-3-methylbutyric acidChEBI
L-(+)-alpha-Aminoisovaleric acidChEBI
L-alpha-Amino-beta-methylbutyric acidChEBI
L-(+)-a-Aminoisovaleric acidGenerator
L-(+)-Α-aminoisovaleric acidGenerator
L-a-Amino-b-methylbutyric acidGenerator
L-Α-amino-β-methylbutyric acidGenerator
(S)-2-Amino-3-methyl-butanoic acidHMDB
(S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acidHMDB
(S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutyric acidHMDB
(S)-a-Amino-b-methylbutyric acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-methylbutyric acidHMDB
2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acidHMDB
L ValineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H11NO2
Average Mass117.1463 Da
Monoisotopic Mass117.07898 Da
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
Traditional NameL-valine
CAS Registry Number72-18-4
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-07-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-02-17View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-02-17View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Capsicum annuumKNApSAcK Database
Curcuma domesticaKNApSAcK Database
Curcuma longaPlant
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coliKNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as valine and derivatives. Valine and derivatives are compounds containing valine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of valine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentValine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Valine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point295 - 300 °CNot Available
Boiling Point213.64 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility58.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.26Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility214 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.72ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity29.49 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.19 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB00161
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB004905
KNApSAcK IDC00001398
Chemspider ID6050
KEGG Compound IDC00183
BiGG ID34167
Wikipedia LinkL-valine
PubChem Compound6287
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16414
Good Scents IDrw1055601
General References
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  3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [PubMed:6696735 ]
  4. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [PubMed:9625050 ]
  5. Wevers RA, Engelke U, Wendel U, de Jong JG, Gabreels FJ, Heerschap A: Standardized method for high-resolution 1H-NMR of cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chem. 1995 May;41(5):744-51. [PubMed:7729054 ]
  6. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [PubMed:6198473 ]
  7. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [PubMed:15911239 ]
  8. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [PubMed:12297216 ]
  9. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [PubMed:14992292 ]
  10. Deng C, Shang C, Hu Y, Zhang X: Rapid diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other aminoacidemias by quantitative analysis of amino acids in neonatal blood spots by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Jul 25;775(1):115-20. [PubMed:12101068 ]
  11. Stickel F, Osterreicher CH, Datz C, Ferenci P, Wolfel M, Norgauer W, Kraus MR, Wrba F, Hellerbrand C, Schuppan D: Prediction of progression to cirrhosis by a glutathione S-transferase P1 polymorphism in subjects with hereditary hemochromatosis. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Sep 12;165(16):1835-40. [PubMed:16157826 ]
  12. Wudy SA, Hartmann M, Solleder C, Homoki J: Determination of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in human plasma by routine isotope dilution mass spectrometry using benchtop gas chromatography-mass selective detection. Steroids. 2001 Oct;66(10):759-62. [PubMed:11522338 ]
  13. Szpetnar M, Pasternak K, Boguszewska A: Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) in heart diseases (ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction). Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 2004;59(2):91-5. [PubMed:16146056 ]
  14. Hongpaisan J: Inhibition of proliferation of contaminating fibroblasts by D-valine in cultures of smooth muscle cells from human myometrium. Cell Biol Int. 2000;24(1):1-7. [PubMed:10826768 ]
  15. Deligezer U, Akisik EE, Dalay N: Homozygosity at the C677T of the MTHFR gene is associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Turkish population. In Vivo. 2005 Sep-Oct;19(5):889-93. [PubMed:16097444 ]
  16. McInturff JE, Wang SJ, Machleidt T, Lin TR, Oren A, Hertz CJ, Krutzik SR, Hart S, Zeh K, Anderson DH, Gallo RL, Modlin RL, Kim J: Granulysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects against Propionibacterium acnes. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Aug;125(2):256-63. [PubMed:16098035 ]
  17. Jensen PK, Jacobsen NO: Studies of D-amino acid oxidase activity in human epidermis and cultured human epidermal cells. Arch Dermatol Res. 1984;276(1):57-64. [PubMed:6142701 ]
  18. Kurpad AV, Regan MM, Raj TD, Gnanou JV, Rao VN, Young VR: The daily valine requirement of healthy adult Indians determined by the 24-h indicator amino acid balance approach. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;82(2):373-9. [PubMed:16087981 ]
  19. Lynch CJ, Adams SH: Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signalling and insulin resistance. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Dec;10(12):723-36. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2014.171. Epub 2014 Oct 7. [PubMed:25287287 ]
  20. Xiao F, Yu J, Guo Y, Deng J, Li K, Du Y, Chen S, Zhu J, Sheng H, Guo F: Effects of individual branched-chain amino acids deprivation on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in mice. Metabolism. 2014 Jun;63(6):841-50. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.03.006. Epub 2014 Mar 15. [PubMed:24684822 ]
  21. Cummings NE, Williams EM, Kasza I, Konon EN, Schaid MD, Schmidt BA, Poudel C, Sherman DS, Yu D, Arriola Apelo SI, Cottrell SE, Geiger G, Barnes ME, Wisinski JA, Fenske RJ, Matkowskyj KA, Kimple ME, Alexander CM, Merrins MJ, Lamming DW: Restoration of metabolic health by decreased consumption of branched-chain amino acids. J Physiol. 2018 Feb 15;596(4):623-645. doi: 10.1113/JP275075. Epub 2017 Dec 27. [PubMed:29266268 ]
  22. Kane H, Gourret Baumgart J, El-Hage W, Deloyer J, Maes C, Lebas MC, Marazziti D, Thome J, Fond-Harmant L, Denis F: Opportunities and Challenges for Professionals in Psychiatry and Mental Health Care Using Digital Technologies During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Systematic Review. JMIR Hum Factors. 2022 Feb 4;9(1):e30359. doi: 10.2196/30359. [PubMed:34736224 ]