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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2020-11-24 22:16:45 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000595
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameGalactonic acid
DescriptionGalactonic acid is a sugar acid that is a metabolic breakdown product of galactose. Galactose dehydrogenase is responsible for converting galactose to galactonolactone, which then spontaneously or enzymatically converts to galactonic acid. Once formed, galactonic acid may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. Galactonic acid is increased in red blood cells of galactosemic patients, due to a galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency (PMID: 14680973 , OMMBID: The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, Ch.72). When present in sufficiently high levels, galactonic acid can act as an acidogen and a metabotoxin. An acidogen is an acidic compound that induces acidosis, which has multiple adverse effects on many organ systems. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of galactonic acid are associated with at least two inborn errors of metabolism, including galactosemia and galactosemia type II. Galactonic acid is an organic acid. Abnormally high levels of organic acids in the blood (organic acidemia), urine (organic aciduria), the brain, and other tissues lead to general metabolic acidosis. Acidosis typically occurs when arterial pH falls below 7.35. In infants with acidosis, the initial symptoms include poor feeding, vomiting, loss of appetite, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and lack of energy (lethargy). These can progress to heart abnormalities, liver abnormalities (jaundice), kidney abnormalities, seizures, coma, and possibly death. These are also the characteristic symptoms of untreated galactosemia. Many affected children with organic acidemias experience intellectual disability or delayed development. High levels of galactonic acid in infants are specifically associated with hepatomegaly (an enlarged liver), cirrhosis, renal failure, cataracts, vomiting, seizure, hypoglycemia, lethargy, brain damage, and ovarian failure.
D-Galactonic acidKegg
Galactonic acid, (D)-isomerHMDB
Galactonic acid, monopotassium saltHMDB
Galactonic acid, (L)-isomerHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O7
Average Mass196.1553 Da
Monoisotopic Mass196.05830 Da
IUPAC Name(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid
Traditional Namegalactonic acid
CAS Registry Number13382-27-9
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-08-17View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Varshavi.d262021-08-17View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, 5%_DMSO, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Not Available
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaLOTUS Database
Bison bisonFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Lotus corniculatusLOTUS Database
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Prunus aviumPlant
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Triticum aestivumKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are hydroxy acids with a 6 to 12 carbon atoms long side chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub ClassMedium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentMedium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Medium-chain hydroxy acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point133 - 136 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility159 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area138.45 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity38.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.07 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022122
KNApSAcK IDC00053191
Chemspider ID114198
KEGG Compound IDC00880
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
PubChem Compound128869
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16534
Good Scents IDNot Available
General References
  1. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [PubMed:2026685 ]
  2. Shinka T, Inoue Y, Peng H, Zhen-Wei X, Ose M, Kuhara T: Urine screening of five-day-old newborns: metabolic profiling of neonatal galactosuria. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999 Sep 24;732(2):469-77. [PubMed:10517369 ]
  3. Yager CT, Chen J, Reynolds R, Segal S: Galactitol and galactonate in red blood cells of galactosemic patients. Mol Genet Metab. 2003 Nov;80(3):283-9. [PubMed:14680973 ]
  4. Tian W, Xiang X, Wang H: Differential Impacts of Water Table and Temperature on Bacterial Communities in Pore Water From a Subalpine Peatland, Central China. Front Microbiol. 2021 May 28;12:649981. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.649981. eCollection 2021. [PubMed:34122363 ]
  5. Sodeyama T, Nishikawa H, Harai K, Takeshima D, Sawa Y, Maruta T, Ishikawa T: The d-mannose/l-galactose pathway is the dominant ascorbate biosynthetic route in the moss Physcomitrium patens. Plant J. 2021 Sep;107(6):1724-1738. doi: 10.1111/tpj.15413. Epub 2021 Aug 10. [PubMed:34245628 ]