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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:39:30 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000591
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameUrea
DescriptionUrea is a highly soluble organic compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids. Urea is formed in a cyclic pathway known simply as the urea cycle. In this cycle, amino groups donated by ammonia and L-aspartate are converted to urea. Urea is essentially a waste product; it has no physiological function. It is dissolved in blood (in humans in a concentration of 2.5 - 7.5 Mmol/liter) and excreted by the kidney in the urine. In addition, a small amount of urea is excreted (along with sodium chloride and water) in human sweat. Urea is found to be associated with primary hypomagnesemia, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1728ChEBI
CarbamideChEBI
CarbonyldiamideChEBI
e927bChEBI
H2NC(O)NH2ChEBI
HarnstoffChEBI
KarbamidChEBI
urChEBI
UreeChEBI
PastaronKegg
AlphadrateHMDB
ARFHMDB
b-I-KHMDB
beta-I-KHMDB
BromisovalumHMDB
Bubber shetHMDB
CalmuridHMDB
Calmurid HCHMDB
CarbadermHMDB
Carbamide resinHMDB
Carbonyl diamideHMDB
Carbonyl diamineHMDB
CarbonyldiamineHMDB
CarmolHMDB
HelicosolHMDB
HyanitHMDB
IsoureaHMDB
KeratinaminHMDB
Keratinamin kowaHMDB
MocovinaHMDB
OnychomalHMDB
PanafilHMDB
UREHMDB
UreaphilHMDB
UreophilHMDB
BasodexanHMDB
Chemical FormulaCH4N2O
Average Mass60.0553 Da
Monoisotopic Mass60.03236 Da
IUPAC Nameurea
Traditional Nameurea
CAS Registry Number57-13-6
SMILES
NC(N)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH4N2O/c2-1(3)4/h(H4,2,3,4)
InChI KeyXSQUKJJJFZCRTK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-08-03View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-07-29View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaKNApSAcK Database
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaKNApSAcK Database
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaKNApSAcK Database
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaKNApSAcK Database
Castanea sativaFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lasiosphaera fenzlii-
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
OdocoileusFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
ThelespermaFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trogopterus xanthipes-
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Vespertilio superans-
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Bos taurus domesticusKNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiensKNApSAcK Database
Phoma medicaginisKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ureas. Ureas are compounds containing two amine groups joined by a carbonyl (C=O) functional group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic carbonic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassUreas
Direct ParentUreas
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Urea
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point132 °CNot Available
Boiling Point196.00 to 197.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility545 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.11Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility412 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-1.4ChemAxon
logS0.84ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.73ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area69.11 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity13.14 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.1 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000294
DrugBank IDDB03904
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012174
KNApSAcK IDC00007314
Chemspider ID1143
KEGG Compound IDC00086
BioCyc IDUREA
BiGG ID33799
Wikipedia LinkUrea
METLIN ID6
PubChem Compound1176
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16199
Good Scents IDrw1296171
References
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. [PubMed:15627241 ]
  3. Deja M, Hildebrandt B, Ahlers O, Riess H, Wust P, Gerlach H, Kerner T: Goal-directed therapy of cardiac preload in induced whole-body hyperthermia. Chest. 2005 Aug;128(2):580-6. [PubMed:16100141 ]
  4. Klassen P, Furst P, Schulz C, Mazariegos M, Solomons NW: Plasma free amino acid concentrations in healthy Guatemalan adults and in patients with classic dengue. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Mar;73(3):647-52. [PubMed:11237944 ]
  5. Georges J: Determination of ammonia and urea in urine and of urea in blood by use of an ammonia-selective electrode. Clin Chem. 1979 Nov;25(11):1888-90. [PubMed:498498 ]
  6. Vaidya VS, Bonventre JV: Mechanistic biomarkers for cytotoxic acute kidney injury. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2006 Oct;2(5):697-713. [PubMed:17014390 ]
  7. Nandan RK, Sivapathasundharam B, Sivakumar G: Oral manifestations and analysis of salivary and blood urea levels of patients under going haemo dialysis and kidney transplant. Indian J Dent Res. 2005 Jul-Sep;16(3):77-82. [PubMed:16454320 ]
  8. Zocco MA, Di Campli C, Gaspari R, Candelli M, Nista EC, Zileri Dal Verme L, Di Gioacchino G, Santoliquido A, Flore R, Tondi P, Proietti R, Pola P, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A: Improvement of mitochondrial function evaluated by ketoisocaproic acid breath test in patients with HCV infection undergoing albumin dialysis. Transplant Proc. 2005 Jul-Aug;37(6):2554-6. [PubMed:16182741 ]
  9. Kohnle M, Pietruck F, Kribben A, Philipp T, Heemann U, Witzke O: Ezetimibe for the treatment of uncontrolled hypercholesterolemia in patients with high-dose statin therapy after renal transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2006 Jan;6(1):205-8. [PubMed:16433776 ]
  10. Malyszko J, Malyszko J, Wolczynski S, Mysliwiec M: Adiponectin, leptin and thyroid hormones in patients with chronic renal failure and on renal replacement therapy: are they related? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006 Jan;21(1):145-52. Epub 2005 Sep 2. [PubMed:16141459 ]
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  12. Authors unspecified: Final report of the safety assessment of Urea. Int J Toxicol. 2005;24 Suppl 3:1-56. [PubMed:16422263 ]
  13. Miles L, Heubi JE, Bove KE: Hepatocyte glycogen accumulation in patients undergoing dietary management of urea cycle defects mimics storage disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 Apr;40(4):471-6. [PubMed:15795597 ]
  14. Hobbs JR: Monitoring myelomatosis. Arch Intern Med. 1975 Jan;135(1):125-30. [PubMed:1111461 ]
  15. Racz I, Soos G, Jakab E: [Water content of the skin following salicylic acid and urea treatment]. Hautarzt. 1989;40 Suppl 9:61-2. [PubMed:2807925 ]
  16. Younes H, Alphonse JC, Deteix R: [Role of dietary fibers in the nutritional management of chronic renal failure]. Nephrologie. 2004;25(7):283-5. [PubMed:15584637 ]
  17. Roszczenko A, Galazyn-Sidorczuk M, Brzoska MM, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J, Zwierz K: [Select parameters of renal function in smokers in correlation with the exposure to cadmium]. Przegl Lek. 2004;61(4):348-50. [PubMed:15521599 ]
  18. Gowda GA, Somashekar BS, Ijare OB, Sharma A, Kapoor VK, Khetrapal CL: One-step analysis of major bile components in human bile using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Lipids. 2006 Jun;41(6):577-89. [PubMed:16981436 ]
  19. Kurekci AE, Atay AA, Sarici SU, Yesilkaya E, Senses Z, Okutan V, Ozcan O: Is there a relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia? J Trop Pediatr. 2005 Jun;51(3):166-9. Epub 2005 Apr 26. [PubMed:15855306 ]
  20. Fostel J, Boneva R, Lloyd A: Exploration of the gene expression correlates of chronic unexplained fatigue using factor analysis. Pharmacogenomics. 2006 Apr;7(3):441-54. [PubMed:16610954 ]