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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-06-29 00:47:04 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000443
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common Name(R)-lipoic acid
DescriptionLipoic acid is a vitamin-like antioxidant that acts as a free-radical scavenger. Alpha-lipoic acid is also known as thioctic acid. It is a naturally occurring compound that is synthesized by both plants and animals. Lipoic acid contains two thiol groups which may be either oxidized or reduced. The reduced form is known as dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA). Lipoic acid (Delta E= -0.288) Is therefore capable of thiol-disulfide exchange, giving it antioxidant activity. Lipoate is a critical cofactor for aerobic metabolism, participating in the transfer of acyl or methylamine groups via the 2-Oxoacid dehydrogenase (2-OADH) or alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA. This activity results in the catabolism of the branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). Lipoic acid also participates in the glycine cleavage system(GCV). The glycine cleavage system is a multi-enzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidation of glycine to form 5,10 methylene tetrahydrofolate, an important cofactor in nucleic acid synthesis. Since Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for many enzyme complexes, it is essential for aerobic life as we know it. This system is used by many organisms and plays a crucial role in the photosynthetic carbon cycle. Lipoic acid was first postulated to be an effective antioxidant when it was found it prevented vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency. It is able to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reduce other metabolites, such as glutathione or vitamins, maintaining a healthy cellular redox state. Lipoic acid has been shown in cell culture experiments to increase cellular uptake of glucose by recruiting the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the cell membrane, suggesting its use in diabetes. Studies of rat aging have suggested that the use of L-carnitine and lipoic acid results in improved memory performance and delayed structural mitochondrial decay. As a result, it may be helpful for people with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease.
(+)-alpha-Lipoic acidChEBI
(R)-(+)-Lipoic acidChEBI
(R)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-pentanoic acidChEBI
(R)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-valeric acidChEBI
(R)-6,8-Thioctic acidChEBI
alpha-Lipoic acidChEBI
Lipoic acidChEBI
R-(+)-Lipoic acidChEBI
Thioctic acidChEBI
Thioctic acid D-formChEBI
1,2-Dithiolane-3R-pentanoic acidKegg
(+)-a-Lipoic acidGenerator
(+)-Α-lipoic acidGenerator
a-Lipoic acidGenerator
Α-lipoic acidGenerator
Thioctate D-formGenerator
Acid, alpha-lipoicHMDB
alpha Lipoic acidHMDB
(3R)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-pentanoic acidHMDB
(R)-(+)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-pentanoic acidHMDB
(R)-(+)-alpha-Lipoic acidHMDB
(R)-(+)-Α-lipoic acidHMDB
(R)-alpha-Lipoic acidHMDB
(R)-Α-lipoic acidHMDB
alpha-(+)-Lipoic acidHMDB
Α-(+)-lipoic acidHMDB
1,2-Dithiolane-3-valeric acidHMDB
5-(1,2-Dithiolan-3-yl)pentanoic acidHMDB
5-(1,2-Dithiolan-3-yl)valeric acidHMDB
6,8-Thioctic acidHMDB
6-Thioctic acidHMDB
(R)-Lipoic acidKEGG
Chemical FormulaC8H14O2S2
Average Mass206.3260 Da
Monoisotopic Mass206.04352 Da
IUPAC Name5-[(3R)-1,2-dithiolan-3-yl]pentanoic acid
Traditional Namelipoic acid
CAS Registry Number1200-22-2
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Not Available
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Escherichia coliBacteria
Gallus gallusFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Porphyra tenera--
Solanum lycopersicumLOTUS Database
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as lipoic acids and derivatives. Lipoic acids and derivatives are compounds containing a lipoic acid moiety (or a derivative thereof), which consists of a pentanoic acid (or derivative) attached to the C3 carbon atom of a 1,2-dithiolane ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassLipoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentLipoic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Lipoic_acid_derivative
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Heterocyclic fatty acid
  • Thia fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • 1,2-dithiolane
  • Organic disulfide
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point60.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.22 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity54.37 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability21.74 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB00166
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022631
KNApSAcK IDC00000754
Chemspider ID5886
KEGG Compound IDC16241
BiGG ID35801
Wikipedia LinkLipoic_acid
PubChem Compound6112
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30314
Good Scents IDrw1582041
General References
  1. Teichert J, Tuemmers T, Achenbach H, Preiss C, Hermann R, Ruus P, Preiss R: Pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid in subjects with severe kidney damage and end-stage renal disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;45(3):313-28. [PubMed:15703366 ]
  2. Arner ES, Nordberg J, Holmgren A: Efficient reduction of lipoamide and lipoic acid by mammalian thioredoxin reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Aug 5;225(1):268-74. [PubMed:8769129 ]
  3. Henriksen EJ, Saengsirisuwan V: Exercise training and antioxidants: relief from oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003 Apr;31(2):79-84. [PubMed:12715971 ]
  4. Loginov AS, Nilova TV, Bendikov EA, Petrakov AV: [Pharmacokinetics of preparations of lipoic acid and their effect on ATP synthesis, processes of microsomal and cytosol oxidation in hepatocytes in liver damage in man]. Farmakol Toksikol. 1989 Jul-Aug;52(4):78-82. [PubMed:2509239 ]
  5. Baker H, Deangelis B, Baker ER, Hutner SH: A practical assay of lipoate in biologic fluids and liver in health and disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998 Sep;25(4-5):473-9. [PubMed:9741583 ]
  6. Konrad D: Utilization of the insulin-signaling network in the metabolic actions of alpha-lipoic acid-reduction or oxidation? Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005 Jul-Aug;7(7-8):1032-9. [PubMed:15998258 ]
  7. Bruggraber SF, Leung PS, Amano K, Quan C, Kurth MJ, Nantz MH, Benson GD, Van de Water J, Luketic V, Roche TE, Ansari AA, Coppel RL, Gershwin ME: Autoreactivity to lipoate and a conjugated form of lipoate in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec;125(6):1705-13. [PubMed:14724823 ]
  8. Redden PR, Melanson RL, Douglas JA, Dick AJ: Acyloxymethyl acidic drug derivatives: in vitro hydrolytic reactivity. Int J Pharm. 1999 Apr 15;180(2):151-60. [PubMed:10370185 ]
  9. Tankova T, Cherninkova S, Koev D: Treatment for diabetic mononeuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid. Int J Clin Pract. 2005 Jun;59(6):645-50. [PubMed:15924591 ]
  10. Chevion S, Hofmann M, Ziegler R, Chevion M, Nawroth PP: The antioxidant properties of thioctic acid: characterization by cyclic voltammetry. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1997 Feb;41(2):317-27. [PubMed:9063572 ]
  11. Barbiroli B, Medori R, Tritschler HJ, Klopstock T, Seibel P, Reichmann H, Iotti S, Lodi R, Zaniol P: Lipoic (thioctic) acid increases brain energy availability and skeletal muscle performance as shown by in vivo 31P-MRS in a patient with mitochondrial cytopathy. J Neurol. 1995 Jul;242(7):472-7. [PubMed:7595680 ]
  12. Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA, Candow DG: Effect of alpha-lipoic acid combined with creatine monohydrate on human skeletal muscle creatine and phosphagen concentration. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Sep;13(3):294-302. [PubMed:14669930 ]
  13. Haj-Yehia AI, Assaf P, Nassar T, Katzhendler J: Determination of lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. J Chromatogr A. 2000 Feb 18;870(1-2):381-8. [PubMed:10722093 ]
  14. Nagamatsu M, Nickander KK, Schmelzer JD, Raya A, Wittrock DA, Tritschler H, Low PA: Lipoic acid improves nerve blood flow, reduces oxidative stress, and improves distal nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1995 Aug;18(8):1160-7. [PubMed:7587852 ]
  15. Steinmann B, Gitzelmann R: Strychnine treatment attempted in newborn twins with severe nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Helv Paediatr Acta. 1979;34(6):589-99. [PubMed:541222 ]
  16. Lee WJ, Lee IK, Kim HS, Kim YM, Koh EH, Won JC, Han SM, Kim MS, Jo I, Oh GT, Park IS, Youn JH, Park SW, Lee KU, Park JY: Alpha-lipoic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction in obese rats via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec;25(12):2488-94. Epub 2005 Oct 13. [PubMed:16224049 ]
  17. McCormick DB: A trail of research on cofactors: an odyssey with friends. J Nutr. 2000 Feb;130(2S Suppl):323S-330S. [PubMed:10721897 ]
  18. Semenova TV, Azhitskii GIu, Sarnatskaia VV, Nikolaev VG: [Effect of various specific agents on the heat stability of human serum albumin]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1978). 1993 Sep-Oct;65(5):26-30. [PubMed:8160293 ]