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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-23 17:28:30 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000434
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameHypoxanthine
DescriptionHypoxanthine, also known as purine-6-ol or Hyp, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purines. Purines are a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. Hypoxanthine is also classified as an oxopurine, Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the nucleotide salvage pathway. Hypoxanthine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. Hypoxanthine has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as radish (var.), Mountain yams, welsh onions, greenthread tea, and common beets. Hypoxanthine is occasionally found as a constituent of nucleic acids, where it is present in the anticodon of tRNA in the form of its nucleoside inosine. Biologically, hypoxanthine can be formed a number of ways. For instance, it is one of the products of the action of xanthine oxidase on xanthine. However, more frequently xanthine is formed from oxidation of hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase. The enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase converts hypoxanthine into IMP in the nucleotide salvage pathway. Hypoxanthine is also a spontaneous deamination product of adenine. Under normal circumstances hypoxanthine is readily converted to uric acid. In this process, hypoxanthine is first oxidized to xanthine, which is further oxidized to uric acid by xanthine oxidase. Molecular oxygen, the oxidant in both reactions, is reduced to H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species. In humans, uric acid is the final product of purine degradation and is excreted in the urine. Within humans, hypoxanthine participates in a number of other enzymatic reactions. In particular, hypoxanthine and ribose 1-phosphate can be biosynthesized from inosine through its interaction with the enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Hypoxanthine is also involved in the metabolic disorder called the purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a disorder of the immune system (primary immunodeficiency) characterized by recurrent infections, neurologic symptoms, and autoimmune disorders. PNP deficiency causes a shortage of white blood cells, called T-cells, that help fight infection. Affected individuals develop neurologic symptoms, such as stiff or rigid muscles (spasticity), uncoordinated movements (ataxia), developmental delay, and intellectual disability. PNP deficiency is associated with an increased risk to develop autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), autoimmune neutropenia, thyroiditis, and lupus.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
6(1H)-PurinoneChEBI
6-OxopurineChEBI
9H-Purin-6(1H)-oneChEBI
HypChEBI
Purin-6(1H)-oneChEBI
Purine-6-olChEBI
1,7-Dihydro-6H-purin-6-oneHMDB
1,7-Dihydro-6H-purine-6-oneHMDB
1H,7H-HypoxanthineHMDB
3H-Purin-6-olHMDB
4-Hydroxy-1H-purineHMDB
6-Hydroxy-1H-purineHMDB
6-HydroxypurineHMDB
7H-Purin-6-olHMDB
9H-Purin-6-olHMDB
Hypoxanthine enolHMDB
Purin-6(3H)-oneHMDB
Purin-6-olHMDB
SarcineHMDB
SarkinHMDB
SarkineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H4N4O
Average Mass136.1115 Da
Monoisotopic Mass136.03851 Da
IUPAC Name7H-purin-6-ol
Traditional Name6-hydroxypurine
CAS Registry Number68-94-0
SMILES
OC1=NC=NC2=C1NC=N2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H4N4O/c10-5-3-4(7-1-6-3)8-2-9-5/h1-2H,(H2,6,7,8,9,10)
InChI KeyFDGQSTZJBFJUBT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, 100%_DMSO, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-23View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-23View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentus
Acanthopanax giraldiiPlant
Actinidia chinensis
Agaricus bisporus
Agave
Allium ampeloprasum
Allium ascalonicum
Allium cepa
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium sativum
Allium schoenoprasum
Allium tuberosum
Aloysia triphylla
Amaranthus
Amelanchier alnifolia
Anacardium occidentale
Ananas comosus
Anas platyrhynchos
Anatidae
Anethum graveolens
Angelica keiskei
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Anser anser
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulce
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arachis hypogaea
Arctium lappa
Armoracia rusticana
Artemisia dracunculus
Artemisia vulgaris
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asparagus officinalis
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambola
Basella alba
Benincasa hispida
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Bison bison
Borago officinalis
Bos taurus
Bos taurus domesticusAnimalia
Bos taurus X Bison bison
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica napus var. napus
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italica
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapa
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum alicastrum
Bubalus bubalis
Byrsonima crassifolia
Cajanus cajan
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibarius
Capparis spinosa
Capra aegagrus hircus
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuum
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Carica papaya L.
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya
Carya illinoinensis
Castanea
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Ceratonia siliqua
Cervidae
Cervus canadensis
Cervus nippon-
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamerion angustifolium
Chenopodium album
Chenopodium quinoa
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybus
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Cirsium
Citrullus lanatus
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus maxima
Citrus paradisi
Citrus reticulata
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)
Cocos nucifera
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephora
Colocasia esculenta
Columba
Columbidae
Coprinus atramentariusFungi
Corchorus olitorius
Coriandrum sativum L.
Corylus
Corylus avellana
Crateva religiosa
Crocus sativus
Cucumis melo
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maxima
Cucurbita moschata
Cuminum cyminum
Curcuma longa
Cydonia oblonga
Cymbopogon citratus
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Daucus carota
Daucus carota ssp. sativus
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Diospyros
Diospyros kaki
Diospyros virginiana
Dromaius novaehollandiae
Durio zibethinus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elaeis
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomum
Empetrum nigrum
Equus caballus
Eragrostis tef
Eriobotrya japonica
Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Eutrema japonicum
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fagopyrum tataricum
Fagus
Feijoa sellowiana
Ficus carica
Flammulina velutipes
Foeniculum vulgare
Fragaria x ananassa
Fritillaria cirrhosaPlant
Gallus gallus
Garcinia mangostana
Gaylussacia baccata
Ginkgo biloba
Glycine maxFooDB
Gossypium
Grifola frondosa
Hedysarum alpinum
Helianthus annuus L.
Helianthus tuberosus
Hibiscus sabbariffa
Hippophae rhamnoides
Homo sapiens (Serum)Animalia
Homo sapiens (Urine)Animalia
Hordeum vulgare
Hyssopus officinalis L.
Illicium verum
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea batatas
Juglans
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra L.
Juglans regia
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativa
Lagenaria siceraria
Lagopus muta
Lathyrus sativus
Laurus nobilis L.
Lens culinaris
Lentinus edodes
Lepidium sativum
Leporidae
Lepus timidus
Levisticum officinale
Linum usitatissimum
Litchi chinensis
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus
Lupinus albus
Lycium chinensePlant
Macadamia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Malpighia emarginata
Malus
Malus pumila
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Matricaria recutita
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Medicago sativa
Melanitta fusca
Meleagris gallopavo
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha spicata
Mentha x piperita
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Momordica charantia
Morchellaceae
Morella rubra
Moringa oleifera
Morus
Morus nigra
Musa acuminata
Musa x paradisiaca
Myrica
Myristica fragrans
Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nephelium lappaceum
Numida meleagris
Nuphar lutea
Ocimum basilicum
Odocoileus
Oenothera biennis
Olea europaea
Ophiocordyceps sinensisFungi
Opuntia
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia macrorhiza
Origanum majorana
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgare
Origanum X majoricum
Oryctolagus
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis aries
Pachyrhizus erosus
Panax ginseng
Pangium edule
Panicum miliaceum
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
Pediomelum esculentum
Penaeus orientalisAnimalia
Perideridia oregana
Persea americana
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgaris
Phasianidae
Phasianus colchicus
Pheretima aspergilum-
Phoenix dactylifera
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllostachys edulis
Physalis
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisum
Pinellia pedatisectaPlant
Pinus
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum L.
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativum
Pleurotus ostreatus
Polygonum alpinum
Portulaca oleracea
Pouteria sapota
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus avium
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasus
Prunus domestica
Prunus dulcis
Prunus persica
Prunus persica var. nucipersica
Prunus persica var. persica
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajava
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Punica granatum
Pyrus communis
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus
Raphanus sativus
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rheum rhabarbarum
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Rosa
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilis
Rumex
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix pulchra
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia officinalis
Salvia rosmarinus
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra L.
Satureja hortensis L.
Satureja montana
Scorzonera hispanica
Secale cereale
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicum
Sesbania bispinosa
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium
Solanum lycopersicum
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum
Solanum melongena
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolor
Spinacia oleracea
Struthio camelus
Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa domestica
Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tamarindus indica
Taraxacum officinale
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thelesperma
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Triticum
Triticum aestivum
Triticum durum
Triticum spelta
Triticum turanicum
Typha angustifolia
Vaccinium
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Vanilla
Verbena officinalis
Viburnum edule
Vicia faba
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularis
Vigna mungo
Vigna radiata
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
Vitis
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis vinifera L.
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Zea mays L.
Zingiber officinale
Zizania
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hypoxanthines. Hypoxanthines are compounds containing the purine derivative 1H-purin-6(9H)-one. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentHypoxanthines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Hypoxanthine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point150 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.7 mg/mLYalkowsky, S. H., & Dannenfelser, R. M. (1992). Aquasol database of aqueous solubility. College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 189.
LogP-1.11Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility13 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.55ALOGPS
logP-0.048ChemAxon
logS-1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.72ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.73ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.69 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity35.5 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.82 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000157
DrugBank IDDB04076
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003949
KNApSAcK IDC00001502
Chemspider ID768
KEGG Compound IDC00262
BioCyc IDHYPOXANTHINE
BiGG ID34434
Wikipedia LinkHypoxanthine
METLIN ID83
PubChem Compound790
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17368
Good Scents IDrw1251131
References
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  3. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [PubMed:12829005 ]
  4. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2:18. [PubMed:15882454 ]
  5. Bullo B, Marlewski M, Smolenski RT, Rutkowski B, Swierczynski J, Manitius J: Erythrocyte nucleotides and blood hypoxanthine in patients with uremia evaluated immediately and 24 hours after hemodialysis. Ren Fail. 1996 Mar;18(2):247-52. [PubMed:8723362 ]
  6. Ihara H, Shino Y, Morita Y, Kawaguchi E, Hashizume N, Yoshida M: Is skeletal muscle damaged by the oxidative stress following anaerobic exercise? J Clin Lab Anal. 2001;15(5):239-43. [PubMed:11574951 ]
  7. Inokuchi T, Moriwaki Y, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Ka T, Yamamoto A, Cheng J, Hashimoto-Tamaoki T, Hada T, Yamamoto T: Identification of a new point mutation in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase responsible for hyperuricemia in a female patient. Metabolism. 2004 Nov;53(11):1500-2. [PubMed:15536609 ]
  8. Niklasson F: Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic determination of hypoxanthine, xanthine, urate, and creatinine in cerebrospinal fluid, with direct injection. Clin Chem. 1983 Aug;29(8):1543-6. [PubMed:6872216 ]
  9. Pietz J, Guttenberg N, Gluck L: Hypoxanthine: a marker for asphyxia. Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Nov;72(5):762-6. [PubMed:3140152 ]
  10. Saari H: Oxygen derived free radicals and synovial fluid hyaluronate. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 Jun;50(6):389-92. [PubMed:1711835 ]
  11. Castro-Gago M, Rodriguez IN, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Guitian JP, Rocamonde SL, Rodriguez-Segade S: Therapeutic criteria in hydrocephalic children. Childs Nerv Syst. 1989 Dec;5(6):361-3. [PubMed:2611770 ]
  12. Storm H, Rognum TO, Saugstad OD, Skullerud K, Reichelt KL: Beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in spinal fluid and hypoxanthine in vitreous humour related to brain stem gliosis in sudden infant death victims. Eur J Pediatr. 1994 Sep;153(9):675-81. [PubMed:7957429 ]
  13. Koellner G, Luic M, Shugar D, Saenger W, Bzowska A: Crystal structure of calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase in a complex with hypoxanthine at 2.15 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1997 Jan 17;265(2):202-16. [PubMed:9020983 ]
  14. Kaya M, Moriwaki Y, Ka T, Inokuchi T, Yamamoto A, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Tsuzita J, Oku Y, Yamamoto T: Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of purine bases (uric acid, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and oxypurinol after rigorous exercise. Metabolism. 2006 Jan;55(1):103-7. [PubMed:16324927 ]
  15. Smolenska Z, Kaznowska Z, Zarowny D, Simmonds HA, Smolenski RT: Effect of methotrexate on blood purine and pyrimidine levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999 Oct;38(10):997-1002. [PubMed:10534552 ]
  16. Saiki S, Sato T, Kohzuki M, Kamimoto M, Yosida T: Changes in serum hypoxanthine levels by exercise in obese subjects. Metabolism. 2001 Jun;50(6):627-30. [PubMed:11398135 ]
  17. Gudbjornsson B, Zak A, Niklasson F, Hallgren R: Hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory arthritides. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 Oct;50(10):669-72. [PubMed:1958086 ]
  18. Saiki S, Sato T, Hiwatari M, Harada T, Oouchi M, Kamimoto M: Relation between changes in serum hypoxanthine levels by exercise and daily physical activity in the elderly. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1999 May;188(1):71-4. [PubMed:10494902 ]
  19. Dogan HO, Senol O, Bolat S, Yildiz SN, Buyuktuna SA, Sariismailoglu R, Dogan K, Hasbek M, Hekim SN: Understanding the pathophysiological changes via untargeted metabolomics in COVID-19 patients. J Med Virol. 2021 Apr;93(4):2340-2349. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26716. Epub 2020 Dec 17. [PubMed:33300133 ]