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Record Information
Created at2006-05-22 14:17:32 UTC
Updated at2021-06-29 00:47:19 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000427
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameImidazoleacetic acid
DescriptionImidazol-4-ylacetic acid is a monocarboxylic acid that is acetic acid in which one of the methyl hydrogens has been replaced by an imidazol-4-yl group. It has a role as a mouse metabolite. It is a monocarboxylic acid and a member of imidazoles. It derives from an acetic acid. It is a conjugate acid of an imidazol-4-ylacetate. It is a tautomer of an imidazol-5-ylacetic acid and a 2H-imidazol-4-ylacetic acid. Imidazoleacetic acid, also known as 4(5)-imidazoleacetate or IAA, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as imidazolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an imidazole ring. Imidazoleacetic acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Imidazoleacetic acid can be biosynthesized from imidazole-4-acetaldehyde through its interaction with the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. In humans, imidazoleacetic acid is involved in histidine metabolism. Outside of the human body, Imidazoleacetic acid has been detected, but not quantified in several different foods, such as chinese cinnamons, jostaberries, vanilla, butternut squash, and red rices. Imidazoleacetic acid is a potentially toxic compound. Imidazoleacetic acid is a metabolite product of Histamine metabolism.
1H-Imidazole-4-acetic acidChEBI
4(5)-Imidazoleacetic acidGenerator
4-Imidazoleacetic acidGenerator
Imidazole-4-acetic acidGenerator
1H-Imidazol-4-ylacetic acidHMDB
Imidazol-4-ylacetic acidHMDB
Imidazole acetateHMDB
Imidazolyl-4-acetic acidHMDB
Imidazole-4-acetic acid, sodium saltHMDB
Imidazole-4-acetic acid hydrochlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H6N2O2
Average Mass126.1133 Da
Monoisotopic Mass126.04293 Da
IUPAC Name2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)acetic acid
Traditional NameIMAC
CAS Registry Number645-65-8
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species of Origin
  • Animalia
  • Chemical Taxonomy
    Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as imidazolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an imidazole ring.
    KingdomOrganic compounds
    Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
    Sub ClassImidazoles
    Direct ParentImidazolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
    Alternative Parents
    • Imidazolyl carboxylic acid derivative
    • Heteroaromatic compound
    • Azacycle
    • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
    • Carboxylic acid
    • Carboxylic acid derivative
    • Organic nitrogen compound
    • Organic oxygen compound
    • Organopnictogen compound
    • Organic oxide
    • Hydrocarbon derivative
    • Organooxygen compound
    • Organonitrogen compound
    • Carbonyl group
    • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
    Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
    External Descriptors
    Physical Properties
    Experimental Properties
    Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
    Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
    Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
    LogPNot AvailableNot Available
    Predicted Properties
    Water Solubility53.3 g/LALOGPS
    pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.65ChemAxon
    pKa (Strongest Basic)6.78ChemAxon
    Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
    Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
    Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
    Polar Surface Area65.98 ŲChemAxon
    Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
    Refractivity30.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
    Polarizability11.47 ųChemAxon
    Number of Rings1ChemAxon
    Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
    Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
    Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
    MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
    HMDB IDHMDB0002024
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB030508
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID86856
    KEGG Compound IDC02835
    BiGG ID40666
    Wikipedia LinkNot Available
    METLIN ID6445
    PubChem Compound96215
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID16974
    Good Scents IDNot Available
    General References
    1. Khandelwal JK, Prell GD, Morrishow AM, Green JP: Presence and measurement of imidazoleacetic acid, a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist, in rat brain and human cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurochem. 1989 Apr;52(4):1107-13. [PubMed:2926392 ]
    2. Tsuruta Y, Tomida H, Kohashi K, Ohkura Y: Simultaneous determination of imidazoleacetic acid and N tau- and N pi-methylimidazoleacetic acids in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr. 1987 Apr 24;416(1):63-9. [PubMed:3597642 ]
    3. Khandelwal JK, Hough LB, Pazhenchevsky B, Morrishow AM, Green JP: Presence and measurement of methylimidazoleacetic acids in brain and body fluids. J Biol Chem. 1982 Nov 10;257(21):12815-9. [PubMed:7130180 ]
    4. Sondergaard I: Quantitative determination of 1,4-methyl-imidazoleacetic acid in urine by high performance liquid chromatography. Allergy. 1982 Nov;37(8):581-6. [PubMed:7181054 ]
    5. Imamura I, Watanabe T, Hase Y, Sakamoto Y, Fukuda Y, Yamamoto H, Tsuruhara T, Wada H: Histamine metabolism in patients with histidinemia: determination of urinary levels of histamine, N tau-methylhistamine, imidazole acetic acid, and its conjugate(s). J Biochem. 1984 Dec;96(6):1925-9. [PubMed:6530403 ]
    6. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 May;31(5):419-25. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Epub 2013 Mar 3. [PubMed:23455439 ]