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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-10 01:22:15 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000304
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameAdenine
DescriptionAdenine is a purine base. Adenine is found in both DNA and RNA. Adenine is a fundamental component of adenine nucleotides. Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose; it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between chemical reactions. Purine inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are serious hereditary disorders, which should be suspected in any case of neonatal fitting, failure to thrive, recurrent infections, neurological deficit, renal disease, self-mutilation and other manifestations. Investigation usually starts with uric acid (UA) determination in urine and plasma. (OMIM 300322 , 229600 , 603027 , 232400 , 232600 , 232800 , 201450 , 220150 , 232200 , 162000 , 164050 , 278300 ). (PMID: 17052198 , 17520339 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
6-AminopurineChEBI
AChEBI
AdeChEBI
AdeninChEBI
LeuconKegg
1,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurineHMDB
1H-Purin-6-amineHMDB
1H-Purine-6-amineHMDB
3,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurineHMDB
6-Amino-1H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-3H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-7H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-9H-purineHMDB
6-Amino-purineHMDB
9H-Purin-6-amineHMDB
9H-Purin-6-yl-aminHMDB
9H-Purin-6-ylamineHMDB
9H-Purine-6-amineHMDB
AdeninimineHMDB
Vitamin b4HMDB
Vitamin b 4HMDB
4, Vitamin bHMDB
b 4, VitaminHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H5N5
Average Mass135.1267 Da
Monoisotopic Mass135.05450 Da
IUPAC Name7H-purin-6-amine
Traditional Namevitamin B4
CAS Registry Number73-24-5
SMILES
NC1=C2NC=NC2=NC=N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H5N5/c6-4-3-5(9-1-7-3)10-2-8-4/h1-2H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10)
InChI KeyGFFGJBXGBJISGV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-10View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-10View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentus
Actinidia chinensis
Agaricus bisporus
Agave
Allium ampeloprasum
Allium ascalonicum
Allium cepa
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium sativum
Allium schoenoprasum
Allium tuberosum
Aloysia triphylla
Amaranthus
Amelanchier alnifolia
Anacardium occidentale
Ananas comosus
Anas platyrhynchos
Anatidae
Anethum graveolens
Angelica keiskei
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona purpureaKNApSAcK Database
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Anser anser
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulce
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arachis hypogaea
Arctium lappa
Armoracia rusticana
Artemisia dracunculus
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asparagus officinalis
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Avena sativa L.
Averrhoa carambola
Basella alba
Benincasa hispida
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Bison bison
Borago officinalis
Bos taurus
Bos taurus X Bison bison
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica napus var. napus
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italica
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapa
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum alicastrum
Bubalus bubalis
Byrsonima crassifolia
Cajanus cajan
Camellia irrawadiensisiaKNApSAcK Database
Camellia kissiKNApSAcK Database
Camellia ptilophyllaKNApSAcK Database
Camellia sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Camellia taliensisKNApSAcK Database
Camellia toliensisKNApSAcK Database
Cammellia assamica var.kucha-
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibarius
Capparis spinosa
Capra aegagrus hircus
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuum
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Carica papaya L.
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya
Carya illinoinensis
Castanea
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Ceratonia siliqua
Cervidae
Cervus canadensis
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamerion angustifolium
Chenopodium album
Chenopodium quinoa
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinumKNApSAcK Database
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybus
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Cirsium
Citrullus lanatus
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus maximaKNApSAcK Database
Citrus paradisi
Citrus reticulata
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)
Cocos nucifera
Coffea arabicaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraKNApSAcK Database
Coffea dewevreiKNApSAcK Database
Coffea eugeniodesKNApSAcK Database
Coffea kianjavatensisKNApSAcK Database
Coffea libericaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea racemosaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea salvatrixKNApSAcK Database
Cola sp.KNApSAcK Database
Colocasia esculenta
Columba
Columbidae
Corchorus olitorius
Coriandrum sativum L.
Corylus
Corylus avellana
Crateva religiosa
Crocus sativus
Cucumis melo
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maxima
Cucurbita moschata
Cuminum cyminum
Curcuma longa
Cydonia oblonga
Cymbopogon citratus
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Daucus carota
Daucus carota ssp. sativus
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Diospyros
Diospyros kaki
Diospyros virginiana
Disporopsis asperaKNApSAcK Database
Disporopsis aspersaPlant
Dromaius novaehollandiae
Durio zibethinus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elaeis
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomum
Empetrum nigrum
Equus caballus
Eragrostis tef
Eriobotrya japonica
Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Eutrema japonicum
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fagopyrum tataricum
Fagus
Feijoa sellowiana
Ficus carica
Flammulina velutipes
Foeniculum vulgare
Fragaria x ananassa
Fritillaria cirrhosaKNApSAcK Database
Gallus gallus
Garcinia mangostana
Gaylussacia baccata
Ginkgo biloba
Glycine maxFooDB
Gossypium
Grifola frondosa
Hedysarum alpinum
Helianthus annuus L.
Helianthus tuberosus
Herreania sp.-
Hibiscus sabbariffa
Hippophae rhamnoides
Hordeum vulgare
Hyssopus officinalis L.
Ilex paraguariensisKNApSAcK Database
Illicium verum
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea batatas
Juglans
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra L.
Juglans regia
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativa
Lagenaria siceraria
Lagopus muta
Lathyrus sativus
Laurus nobilis L.
Lens culinaris
Lentinus edodes
Lepidium sativum
Leporidae
Lepus timidus
Levisticum officinale
Linum usitatissimum
Litchi chinensis
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus
Lupinus albus
Macadamia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Malpighia emarginata
Malus
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Matricaria recutita
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Medicago sativa
Melanitta fusca
Meleagris gallopavo
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha spicata
Mentha x piperita
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Momordica charantia
Morchellaceae
Morella rubra
Moringa oleifera
Morus
Morus nigra
Musa acuminata
Musa x paradisiaca
Myrica
Myristica fragrans
Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nephelium lappaceum
Numida meleagris
Nuphar lutea
Ocimum basilicum
Odocoileus
Oenothera biennis
Olea europaea
Opuntia
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia macrorhiza
Origanum majorana
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgare
Origanum X majoricum
Oryctolagus
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis aries
Oxytropis glabraKNApSAcK Database
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginseng
Pangium edule
Panicum miliaceum
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
Paullinia cupanaKNApSAcK Database
Pediomelum esculentum
Perideridia oregana
Persea americana
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgaris
Phasianidae
Phasianus colchicus
Phoenix dactylifera
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllostachys edulis
Physalis
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisum
Pinus
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum L.
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativum
Pleurotus ostreatus
Polygonum alpinum
Portulaca oleracea
Pouteria sapota
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus avium
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasus
Prunus domestica
Prunus dulcis
Prunus persica
Prunus persica var. nucipersica
Prunus persica var. persica
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajava
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Punica granatum
Pyrus communis
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus
Raphanus sativus
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rheum rhabarbarum
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Rosa
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilis
Rumex
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix pulchra
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia officinalis
Salvia rosmarinus
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra L.
Satureja hortensis L.
Satureja montana
Scorzonera hispanica
Secale cereale
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicum
Sesbania bispinosa
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium
Solanum lycopersicum
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum
Solanum melongena
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolor
Spinacia oleracea
Struthio camelus
Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa domestica
Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tamarindus indica
Taraxacum officinale
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thelesperma
Theobroma cacaoKNApSAcK Database
Theobroma grandiflorumKNApSAcK Database
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.
Tinospora crispaPlant
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Triticum
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durum
Triticum spelta
Triticum turanicum
Typha angustifolia
Vaccinium
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Vanilla
Verbena officinalis
Viburnum edule
Vicia faba
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularis
Vigna mungo
Vigna radiata
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
Vitis
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis vinifera L.
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinale
Zizania
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Pleurocybella porrigensKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 6-aminopurines. These are purines that carry an amino group at position 6. Purine is a bicyclic aromatic compound made up of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent6-aminopurines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point360 °CNot Available
Boiling Point553.00 to 554.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility1.03 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.09Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.5 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.38ALOGPS
logP-0.57ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.29ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.64ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.48 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity38.22 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.29 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000034
DrugBank IDDB00173
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012266
KNApSAcK IDC00001490
Chemspider ID185
KEGG Compound IDC00147
BioCyc IDADENINE
BiGG ID34039
Wikipedia LinkAdenine
METLIN ID85
PubChem Compound190
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16708
Good Scents IDrw1216241
References
General References
  1. Di Pietro V, Perruzza I, Amorini AM, Balducci A, Ceccarelli L, Lazzarino G, Barsotti P, Giardina B, Tavazzi B: Clinical, biochemical and molecular diagnosis of a compound homozygote for the 254 bp deletion-8 bp insertion of the APRT gene suffering from severe renal failure. Clin Biochem. 2007 Jan;40(1-2):73-80. Epub 2006 Oct 19. [PubMed:17126311 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  4. Moriyama H, Iizuka T, Nagai M, Hoshi K: Adenine, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, from the leaves of Cassia alata. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Sep;26(9):1361-4. [PubMed:12951489 ]
  5. Liu Y, Xu G, Xu C, Garcia L, Lin CC, Yeh LT: Ultra sensitive method for the determination of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine in human serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Apr 25;803(2):293-8. [PubMed:15063338 ]
  6. Terry KL, De Vivo I, Titus-Ernstoff L, Shih MC, Cramer DW: Androgen receptor cytosine, adenine, guanine repeats, and haplotypes in relation to ovarian cancer risk. Cancer Res. 2005 Jul 1;65(13):5974-81. [PubMed:15994977 ]
  7. Steiner MC, Evans R, Deacon SJ, Singh SJ, Patel P, Fox J, Greenhaff PL, Morgan MD: Adenine nucleotide loss in the skeletal muscles during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2005 Nov;60(11):932-6. Epub 2005 Jul 29. [PubMed:16055624 ]
  8. Whitehead JW, Lee GP, Gharagozloo P, Hofer P, Gehrig A, Wintergerst P, Smyth D, McCoull W, Hachicha M, Patel A, Kyle DJ: 8-Substituted analogues of 3-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxy-benzyl)-8-isopropyl-adenine: highly potent and selective PDE4 inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2005 Feb 24;48(4):1237-43. [PubMed:15715490 ]
  9. Reimers HJ, Packham MA, Mustard JF: Labeling of the releasable adenine nucleotides of washed human platelets. Blood. 1977 Jan;49(1):89-99. [PubMed:401462 ]
  10. Hartmann S, Okun JG, Schmidt C, Langhans CD, Garbade SF, Burgard P, Haas D, Sass JO, Nyhan WL, Hoffmann GF: Comprehensive detection of disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism by HPLC with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2006 Jun;52(6):1127-37. Epub 2006 Apr 13. [PubMed:16613999 ]
  11. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [PubMed:12829005 ]
  12. Ruiz-Stewart I, Kazerounian S, Pitari GM, Schulz S, Waldman SA: Soluble guanylate cyclase is allosterically inhibited by direct interaction with 2-substituted adenine nucleotides. Eur J Biochem. 2002 Apr;269(8):2186-93. [PubMed:11985597 ]
  13. Rolfes RJ: Regulation of purine nucleotide biosynthesis: in yeast and beyond. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Nov;34(Pt 5):786-90. [PubMed:17052198 ]
  14. Simoni RE, Gomes LN, Scalco FB, Oliveira CP, Aquino Neto FR, de Oliveira ML: Uric acid changes in urine and plasma: an effective tool in screening for purine inborn errors of metabolism and other pathological conditions. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Jun;30(3):295-309. Epub 2007 May 19. [PubMed:17520339 ]
  15. Casati S, Rota P, Allevi P, Mingione A, Ottria R, Ciuffreda P: Clarifying the Use of Benzylidene Protecting Group for D-(+)-Ribono-1,4-Lactone, an Essential Building Block in the Synthesis of C-Nucleosides. Molecules. 2021 Oct 26;26(21). pii: molecules26216447. doi: 10.3390/molecules26216447. [PubMed:34770855 ]