Np mrd loader

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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-25 19:10:30 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000253
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameL-Lysine
DescriptionLysine (Lys), also known as L-lysine is an alpha-amino acid. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. Lysine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.E., The amino acids used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Lysine is found in all organisms ranging from bacteria to plants to animals. It is classified as an aliphatic, positively charged or basic amino acid. In humans, lysine is an essential amino acid, meaning the body cannot synthesize it, and it must be obtained from the diet. Lysine is high in foods such as wheat germ, cottage cheese and chicken. Of meat products, wild game and pork have the highest concentration of lysine. Fruits and vegetables contain little lysine, except avocados. Normal requirements for lysine have been found to be about 8 g per day or 12 mg/kg in adults. Children and infants need more, 44 mg/kg per day for an eleven to-twelve-year old, and 97 mg/kg per day for three-to six-month old. In organisms that synthesise lysine, it has two main biosynthetic pathways, the diaminopimelate and α-aminoadipate pathways, which employ distinct enzymes and substrates and are found in diverse organisms. Lysine catabolism occurs through one of several pathways, the most common of which is the saccharopine pathway. Lysine plays several roles in humans, most importantly proteinogenesis, but also in the crosslinking of collagen polypeptides, uptake of essential mineral nutrients, and in the production of carnitine, which is key in fatty acid metabolism. Lysine is also often involved in histone modifications, and thus, impacts the epigenome. Lysine is highly concentrated in muscle compared to most other amino acids. Normal lysine metabolism is dependent upon many nutrients including niacin, vitamin B6, riboflavin, vitamin C, glutamic acid and iron. Excess arginine antagonizes lysine. Several inborn errors of lysine metabolism are known, such as cystinuria, hyperdibasic aminoaciduria I, lysinuric protein intolerance, propionic acidemia, and tyrosinemia I. Most are marked by mental retardation with occasional diverse symptoms such as absence of secondary sex characteristics, undescended testes, abnormal facial structure, anemia, obesity, enlarged liver and spleen, and eye muscle imbalance. Lysine also may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of osteoporosis. Although high protein diets result in loss of large amounts of calcium in urine, so does lysine deficiency. Lysine may be an adjunct therapy because it reduces calcium losses in urine. Lysine deficiency also may result in immunodeficiency. Requirements for lysine are probably increased by stress. Lysine toxicity has not occurred with oral doses in humans. Lysine dosages are presently too small and may fail to reach the concentrations necessary to prove potential therapeutic applications. Lysine metabolites, amino caproic acid and carnitine have already shown their therapeutic potential. Thirty grams daily of amino caproic acid has been used as an initial daily dose in treating blood clotting disorders, indicating that the proper doses of lysine, its precursor, have yet to be used in medicine. Low lysine levels have been found in patients with Parkinson's, hypothyroidism, kidney disease, asthma and depression. The exact significance of these levels is unclear, yet lysine therapy can normalize the level and has been associated with improvement of some patients with these conditions. Abnormally elevated hydroxylysines have been found in virtually all chronic degenerative diseases and those treated with coumadin therapy. The levels of this stress marker may be improved by high doses of vitamin C. Lysine is particularly useful in therapy for marasmus (wasting) (http://Www.Dcnutrition.Com). Lysine has also been shown to play a role in anaemia, as lysine is suspected to have an effect on the uptake of iron and, subsequently, the concentration of ferritin in blood plasma.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-2,6-Diaminohexanoic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha,epsilon-Diaminocaproic acidChEBI
(S)-LysineChEBI
6-Ammonio-L-norleucineChEBI
KChEBI
L-2,6-Diaminocaproic acidChEBI
L-LysinChEBI
LysChEBI
LysinaChEBI
LysineChEBI
Lysine acidChEBI
LysinumChEBI
2,6-Diaminohexanoic acidKegg
(S)-2,6-DiaminohexanoateGenerator
(S)-a,epsilon-DiaminocaproateGenerator
(S)-a,epsilon-Diaminocaproic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha,epsilon-DiaminocaproateGenerator
(S)-Α,epsilon-diaminocaproateGenerator
(S)-Α,epsilon-diaminocaproic acidGenerator
L-2,6-DiaminocaproateGenerator
2,6-DiaminohexanoateGenerator
(+)-S-LysineHMDB
(S)-2,6-Diamino-hexanoateHMDB
(S)-2,6-Diamino-hexanoic acidHMDB
(S)-a,e-DiaminocaproateHMDB
(S)-a,e-Diaminocaproic acidHMDB
6-Amino-aminutrinHMDB
6-Amino-L-norleucineHMDB
a-LysineHMDB
alpha-LysineHMDB
AminutrinHMDB
H-Lys-OHHMDB
L-(+)-LysineHMDB
L-2,6-DiainohexanoateHMDB
L-2,6-Diainohexanoic acidHMDB
L-LysHMDB
Acetate, lysineHMDB
EnisylHMDB
Lysine hydrochlorideHMDB
L LysineHMDB
Lysine acetateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H14N2O2
Average Mass146.1876 Da
Monoisotopic Mass146.10553 Da
IUPAC Name(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
Traditional NameL-lysine
CAS Registry Number56-87-1
SMILES
NCCCC[C@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H14N2O2/c7-4-2-1-3-5(8)6(9)10/h5H,1-4,7-8H2,(H,9,10)/t5-/m0/s1
InChI KeyKDXKERNSBIXSRK-YFKPBYRVSA-N
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, simulated)Ahselim2022-01-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, H2O, experimental)Ahselim2022-01-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-08-30View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Varshavi.d262021-08-30View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)v.dorna83@yahoo.comNot AvailableNot Available2021-07-26View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, simulated)v.dorna83@yahoo.comNot AvailableNot Available2021-07-26View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Abies balsameaLOTUS Database
Abramis bramaFooDB
Achillea millefoliumLOTUS Database
AcipenserFooDB
AcipenseridaeFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
Agaricus campestrisLOTUS Database
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium rotundumLOTUS Database
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Alosa sapidissimaFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
Alpinia galangaLOTUS Database
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anarhichas lupusFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
AnguillaFooDB
AnguilliformesFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anoplopoma fimbriaFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Antirrhinum majusLOTUS Database
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Aplodinotus grunniensFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Archosargus probatocephalusFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemia salinaLOTUS Database
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
AstacideaFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
BivalviaFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
BrachyuraFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Brosme brosmeFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
BuccinidaeFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Calendula officinalisLOTUS Database
Callinectes sapidusFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cancer magisterFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
CarideaFooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Catha edulisLOTUS Database
Catostomus commersoniiFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chanos chanosFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chionoecetes opilioFooDB
Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiLOTUS Database
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Chrysophyllum roxburghiiLOTUS Database
Cicer arietinumFooDB
CichlidaeFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Claviceps purpureaLOTUS Database
Clupea harengus harengusFooDB
Clupea pallasiiFooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colchicum trigynumLOTUS Database
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus aestuansLOTUS Database
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
CoregonusFooDB
Coregonus artediFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crassostrea gigasFooDB
Crassostrea virginicaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita foetidissimaLOTUS Database
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Cyprinus carpioFooDB
Daphnia pulexLOTUS Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
EngraulidaeFooDB
Engraulis encrasicolusFooDB
EpinephelusFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Esox luciusFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
GadiformesFooDB
GadusFooDB
Gadus macrocephalusFooDB
Gadus morhuaFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
HippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus hippoglossusFooDB
Hippoglossus stenolepisFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Hippospongia communisLOTUS Database
Homarus americanusFooDB
Hoplostethus atlanticusFooDB
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hydrocharis morsus-ranaeLOTUS Database
Hypholoma fasciculareLOTUS Database
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Ictalurus punctatusFooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Indigofera schimperiLOTUS Database
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Katsuwonus pelamisFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
LaminariaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Leiostomus xanthurusFooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
Lepomis gibbosusFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Litoria verreauxiiLOTUS Database
Lophius piscatoriusFooDB
Lopholatilus chamaeleonticepsFooDB
Lota lotaFooDB
Lotus corniculatusLOTUS Database
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
Lupinus luteusLOTUS Database
LutjanidaeFooDB
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Merlangius merlangusFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Micropogonias undulatusFooDB
Microstomus kittFooDB
Molva molvaFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
Morone saxatilisFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus australisLOTUS Database
Morus nigraFooDB
Mugil cephalusFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
MytilidaeFooDB
Mytilus edulisFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
NephropidaeFooDB
Nicotiana glaucaLOTUS Database
Nicotiana tabacumLOTUS Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Octopus vulgarisFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
Oncorhynchus gorbuschaFooDB
Oncorhynchus ketaFooDB
Oncorhynchus kisutchFooDB
Oncorhynchus mykissFooDB
Oncorhynchus nerkaFooDB
Oncorhynchus tshawytschaFooDB
Ophiodon elongatusFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia ficus-indicaLOTUS Database
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
OsmeridaeFooDB
Osmerus mordaxFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
PalinuridaeFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Paralithodes camtschaticusFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
PectinidaeFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Pentaclethra macrophyllaLOTUS Database
Peprilus triacanthusFooDB
PercoideiFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus densifloraLOTUS Database
Pinus edulisFooDB
Pinus ponderosaLOTUS Database
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
PleuronectiformesFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
PollachiusFooDB
Pollachius pollachiusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Pomatomus saltatrixFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Puccinia graminisLOTUS Database
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Reinhardtius hippoglossoidesFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
Ripariosida hermaphroditaLOTUS Database
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salmo salarFooDB
Salmo trutta forma truttaFooDB
Salmonella entericaLOTUS Database
SalmonidaeFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scolopendra subspinipesLOTUS Database
Scomberomorus cavallaFooDB
Scomberomorus maculatusFooDB
Scophthalmus maximusFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
SebastesFooDB
Sebastes alutusFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Senna obtusifoliaLOTUS Database
SepiidaeFooDB
Seriola lalandiFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
SiluriformesFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
SoleidaeFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spermacoce pusillaLOTUS Database
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
SpirulinaFooDB
SqualiformesFooDB
Stellaria mediaLOTUS Database
Stenodus leucichthysFooDB
Stenotomus chrysopsFooDB
Streptomyces celluloflavusLOTUS Database
Struthio camelusFooDB
Suaeda aegyptiacaLOTUS Database
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Swertia angustifoliaLOTUS Database
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Telekia speciosaLOTUS Database
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
TeuthidaFooDB
Thalassiosira pseudonanaLOTUS Database
ThelespermaFooDB
Theobroma cacaoFooDB
Thunnus albacaresFooDB
Thunnus thynnusFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Trachinotus carolinusFooDB
Trachurus symmetricusFooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trifolium pratense L.KNApSAcK Database
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Trisopterus esmarkiiFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
Undaria pinnatifidaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna subterraneaLOTUS Database
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
Virola surinamensisFooDB
Viscum albumLOTUS Database
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Xiphias gladiusFooDB
Zea maysLOTUS Database
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Zoarces americanusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point224.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point311.00 to 312.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.05Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility105 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.8ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.14ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area89.34 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity37.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.84 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000182
DrugBank IDDB00123
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012887
KNApSAcK IDC00001378
Chemspider ID5747
KEGG Compound IDC00047
BioCyc IDLYS
BiGG ID33655
Wikipedia LinkLysine
METLIN ID5200
PubChem Compound5962
PDB IDLYS
ChEBI ID18019
Good Scents IDrw1107871
References
General References
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  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [PubMed:6696735 ]
  4. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [PubMed:12834252 ]
  5. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [PubMed:6198473 ]
  6. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [PubMed:15911239 ]
  7. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [PubMed:12297216 ]
  8. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [PubMed:14992292 ]
  9. Kranz BR: Detection of rare malignant cells and their apoptotic fragments in cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet. 2000 Oct 7;356(9237):1242-4. [PubMed:11072949 ]
  10. Hajishengallis G, Koga T, Russell MW: Affinity and specificity of the interactions between Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II and salivary components. J Dent Res. 1994 Sep;73(9):1493-502. [PubMed:7523469 ]
  11. Pahler A, Parker J, Dekant W: Dose-dependent protein adduct formation in kidney, liver, and blood of rats and in human blood after perchloroethene inhalation. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Mar;48(1):5-13. [PubMed:10330678 ]
  12. Faraasen S, Voros J, Csucs G, Textor M, Merkle HP, Walter E: Ligand-specific targeting of microspheres to phagocytes by surface modification with poly(L-lysine)-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) conjugate. Pharm Res. 2003 Feb;20(2):237-46. [PubMed:12636162 ]
  13. Muller WEG, Schroder HC, Neufurth M, Wang X: An unexpected biomaterial against SARS-CoV-2: Bio-polyphosphate blocks binding of the viral spike to the cell receptor. Mater Today (Kidlington). 2021 Dec;51:504-524. doi: 10.1016/j.mattod.2021.07.029. Epub 2021 Aug 2. [PubMed:34366696 ]