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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 23:57:59 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000253
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameL-Lysine
DescriptionLysine (Lys), also known as L-lysine is an alpha-amino acid. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. Lysine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.E., The amino acids used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Lysine is found in all organisms ranging from bacteria to plants to animals. It is classified as an aliphatic, positively charged or basic amino acid. In humans, lysine is an essential amino acid, meaning the body cannot synthesize it, and it must be obtained from the diet. Lysine is high in foods such as wheat germ, cottage cheese and chicken. Of meat products, wild game and pork have the highest concentration of lysine. Fruits and vegetables contain little lysine, except avocados. Normal requirements for lysine have been found to be about 8 g per day or 12 mg/kg in adults. Children and infants need more, 44 mg/kg per day for an eleven to-twelve-year old, and 97 mg/kg per day for three-to six-month old. In organisms that synthesise lysine, it has two main biosynthetic pathways, the diaminopimelate and α-aminoadipate pathways, which employ distinct enzymes and substrates and are found in diverse organisms. Lysine catabolism occurs through one of several pathways, the most common of which is the saccharopine pathway. Lysine plays several roles in humans, most importantly proteinogenesis, but also in the crosslinking of collagen polypeptides, uptake of essential mineral nutrients, and in the production of carnitine, which is key in fatty acid metabolism. Lysine is also often involved in histone modifications, and thus, impacts the epigenome. Lysine is highly concentrated in muscle compared to most other amino acids. Normal lysine metabolism is dependent upon many nutrients including niacin, vitamin B6, riboflavin, vitamin C, glutamic acid and iron. Excess arginine antagonizes lysine. Several inborn errors of lysine metabolism are known, such as cystinuria, hyperdibasic aminoaciduria I, lysinuric protein intolerance, propionic acidemia, and tyrosinemia I. Most are marked by mental retardation with occasional diverse symptoms such as absence of secondary sex characteristics, undescended testes, abnormal facial structure, anemia, obesity, enlarged liver and spleen, and eye muscle imbalance. Lysine also may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of osteoporosis. Although high protein diets result in loss of large amounts of calcium in urine, so does lysine deficiency. Lysine may be an adjunct therapy because it reduces calcium losses in urine. Lysine deficiency also may result in immunodeficiency. Requirements for lysine are probably increased by stress. Lysine toxicity has not occurred with oral doses in humans. Lysine dosages are presently too small and may fail to reach the concentrations necessary to prove potential therapeutic applications. Lysine metabolites, amino caproic acid and carnitine have already shown their therapeutic potential. Thirty grams daily of amino caproic acid has been used as an initial daily dose in treating blood clotting disorders, indicating that the proper doses of lysine, its precursor, have yet to be used in medicine. Low lysine levels have been found in patients with Parkinson's, hypothyroidism, kidney disease, asthma and depression. The exact significance of these levels is unclear, yet lysine therapy can normalize the level and has been associated with improvement of some patients with these conditions. Abnormally elevated hydroxylysines have been found in virtually all chronic degenerative diseases and those treated with coumadin therapy. The levels of this stress marker may be improved by high doses of vitamin C. Lysine is particularly useful in therapy for marasmus (wasting) (http://Www.Dcnutrition.Com). Lysine has also been shown to play a role in anaemia, as lysine is suspected to have an effect on the uptake of iron and, subsequently, the concentration of ferritin in blood plasma.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-2,6-Diaminohexanoic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha,epsilon-Diaminocaproic acidChEBI
(S)-LysineChEBI
6-Ammonio-L-norleucineChEBI
KChEBI
L-2,6-Diaminocaproic acidChEBI
L-LysinChEBI
LysChEBI
LysinaChEBI
LysineChEBI
Lysine acidChEBI
LysinumChEBI
2,6-Diaminohexanoic acidKegg
(S)-2,6-DiaminohexanoateGenerator
(S)-a,epsilon-DiaminocaproateGenerator
(S)-a,epsilon-Diaminocaproic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha,epsilon-DiaminocaproateGenerator
(S)-Α,epsilon-diaminocaproateGenerator
(S)-Α,epsilon-diaminocaproic acidGenerator
L-2,6-DiaminocaproateGenerator
2,6-DiaminohexanoateGenerator
(+)-S-LysineHMDB
(S)-2,6-diamino-HexanoateHMDB
(S)-2,6-diamino-Hexanoic acidHMDB
(S)-a,e-DiaminocaproateHMDB
(S)-a,e-Diaminocaproic acidHMDB
6-amino-AminutrinHMDB
6-amino-L-NorleucineHMDB
a-LysineHMDB
alpha-LysineHMDB
AminutrinHMDB
H-Lys-OHHMDB
L-(+)-LysineHMDB
L-2,6-DiainohexanoateHMDB
L-2,6-Diainohexanoic acidHMDB
L-LysHMDB
Acetate, lysineMeSH, HMDB
EnisylMeSH, HMDB
Lysine hydrochlorideMeSH, HMDB
L LysineMeSH, HMDB
Lysine acetateMeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H14N2O2
Average Mass146.1876 Da
Monoisotopic Mass146.10553 Da
IUPAC Name(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
Traditional NameL-lysine
CAS Registry Number56-87-1
SMILES
NCCCC[C@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H14N2O2/c7-4-2-1-3-5(8)6(9)10/h5H,1-4,7-8H2,(H,9,10)/t5-/m0/s1
InChI KeyKDXKERNSBIXSRK-YFKPBYRVSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 1H] 2D NMR Spectrum (experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-07-26View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, simulated)V.dorna832021-07-26View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-08-30View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Varshavi.d262021-08-30View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Trifolium pratense L.KNApSAcK Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Serum)KNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point224.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point311.00 to 312.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.05HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility105 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.8ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.14ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area89.34 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity37.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.84 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
External Links
HMDB IDHMDB0000182
DrugBank IDDB00123
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000474
KNApSAcK IDC00001378
Chemspider ID5747
KEGG Compound IDC00047
BioCyc IDLYS
BiGG ID33655
Wikipedia LinkLysine
METLIN ID5200
PubChem Compound5962
PDB IDLYS
ChEBI ID18019
Good Scents IDrw1107871
References
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [PubMed:6696735 ]
  4. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [PubMed:12834252 ]
  5. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [PubMed:6198473 ]
  6. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [PubMed:15911239 ]
  7. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [PubMed:12297216 ]
  8. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [PubMed:14992292 ]
  9. Kranz BR: Detection of rare malignant cells and their apoptotic fragments in cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet. 2000 Oct 7;356(9237):1242-4. [PubMed:11072949 ]
  10. Hajishengallis G, Koga T, Russell MW: Affinity and specificity of the interactions between Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II and salivary components. J Dent Res. 1994 Sep;73(9):1493-502. [PubMed:7523469 ]
  11. Pahler A, Parker J, Dekant W: Dose-dependent protein adduct formation in kidney, liver, and blood of rats and in human blood after perchloroethene inhalation. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Mar;48(1):5-13. [PubMed:10330678 ]
  12. Faraasen S, Voros J, Csucs G, Textor M, Merkle HP, Walter E: Ligand-specific targeting of microspheres to phagocytes by surface modification with poly(L-lysine)-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) conjugate. Pharm Res. 2003 Feb;20(2):237-46. [PubMed:12636162 ]