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Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:40:02 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000153
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameValeric acid
DescriptionValeric acid, or pentanoic acid, is a straight chain alkyl carboxylic acid with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3COOH. Like other low molecular weight carboxylic acids, it has a very unpleasant odor. Valeric acid is commonly found in human feces, with an average concentration of 2.4 Umol/g feces (range of 0.6-3.8 Umol/g) (PMID: 6740214 ). Valeric acid is produced by the gut microbiota, typically Clostridia species and other gut bacterial species such as Megasphaera massiliensis MRx0029 (PMID: 30052654 ) Via the condensation of ethanol with propionic acid (PMID: 18116989 ). Valeric acid is largely considered as a gut microbial metabolite. Recently, valeric acid has been found to exert strong gut protective effects. Studies involving mice that received high doses of radiation showed that valeric acid replenishment (via oral gavage) elevated the survival rate of irradiated mice, protected hematogenic organs (such as the thymus and spleen), improved gastrointestinal (GI) tract function and enhanced intestinal epithelial integrity (PMID: 31931652 ). Valeric acid was also found to restore the enteric bacteria taxonomic proportions and reprogram the small intestinal protein profile to normal levels. Valeric acid, like butyric acid, also appears to be a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. High levels of HDAC proteins have been implicated in a variety of disease pathologies, from cancer and colitis to cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration (PMID: 30052654 ). Valeric acid is also found in certain plants, specifically in the perennial flowering plant valerian (Valeriana officinalis), from which it gets its name. Industrially valeric acid is primarily used is in the synthesis of its esters. Volatile esters of valeric acid tend to have pleasant odors and are used in perfumes and cosmetics. Ethyl valerate and pentyl valerate are used as food additives because of their fruity flavours. Hydrolysis of these valerate-containing food additives in the gut can also lead to the appearance of valerate in blood, urine and stool samples.
1-Butanecarboxylic acidChEBI
N-Pentanoic acidChEBI
N-Valeric acidChEBI
Pentanoic acidChEBI
Pentoic acidChEBI
Propylacetic acidChEBI
Valerianic acidChEBI
Valeric acid, normalChEBI
Valerate, normalGenerator
1-Pentanoic acidHMDB
Butanecarboxylic acidHMDB
Kyselina valerovaHMDB
Valeric acid normalHMDB
N-Pentanoic acid, ammonium saltHMDB
N-Pentanoic acid, potassium saltHMDB
N-Pentanoic acid, sodium saltHMDB
N-Pentanoic acid, zinc saltHMDB
N-Pentanoic acid, maganese (+2) saltHMDB
N-Pentanoic acid, 11C-labeledHMDB
Lithium pentanoateHMDB
N-Pentanoic acid, 11C-labeled sodium saltHMDB
Valeric acidKEGG
Chemical FormulaC5H10O2
Average Mass102.1317 Da
Monoisotopic Mass102.06808 Da
IUPAC Namepentanoic acid
Traditional NameN-valeric acid
CAS Registry Number109-52-4
InChI Identifier
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Not Available
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Ajania fastigiataLOTUS Database
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
    • Harvey J. Gold, Charles W. Wilson III The Volatile Flavor Substances of Celery. Journal of Food S...
Artemisia xerophyticaLOTUS Database
Bison bisonFooDB
Blattella germanicaLOTUS Database
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumLOTUS Database
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Centranthus macrosiphonLOTUS Database
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Coffea arabicaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabica L.Plant
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusKNApSAcK Database
Equus caballusFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycyrrhiza glabraLOTUS Database
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Notopterygium franchetiiLOTUS Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pelargonium graveolensLOTUS Database
Penicillium herqueiLOTUS Database
Persea americanaFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Polygala senegaLOTUS Database
Prunus persicaFooDB
Rhododendron mucronulatumLOTUS Database
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Saussurea involucrataLOTUS Database
Stevia rebaudianaLOTUS Database
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Theobroma cacaoFooDB
Trifolium pratensePlant
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Valeriana officinalisKNApSAcK Database
Vitis viniferaLOTUS Database
Xanthium strumariumLOTUS Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as straight chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with a straight aliphatic chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentStraight chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point-34 °CNot Available
Boiling Point184.00 to 186.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility24 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.39Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility40.3 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity26.47 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.23 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB02406
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB018739
KNApSAcK IDC00001208
Chemspider ID7701
KEGG Compound IDC00803
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkValeric acid
PubChem Compound7991
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17418
Good Scents IDrw1009341
General References
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  2. Hoverstad T, Fausa O, Bjorneklett A, Bohmer T: Short-chain fatty acids in the normal human feces. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1984 May;19(3):375-81. [PubMed:6740214 ]
  3. Vuotto ML, Miranda R, Ritieni A, Basile A, Ricciardi L, Di Prisco R, Nicolosi G, Mascolo N: Improvement of (+)-catechin inhibitory activity on human PMN respiratory burst by (+)-3-O-propionyl and (-)-3-O-valeryl substitution. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;55(3):399-405. [PubMed:12724048 ]
  4. Nielsen FH, Honore E, Kristoffersen K, Secher NJ, Pedersen GT: Changes in serum lipids during treatment with norgestrel, oestradiol-valerate and cycloprogynon. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1977;56(4):367-70. [PubMed:602705 ]
  5. Siddiqui O, Roberts MS, Polack AE: Percutaneous absorption of steroids: relative contributions of epidermal penetration and dermal clearance. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1989 Aug;17(4):405-24. [PubMed:2614679 ]
  6. Sudo S, Sudo M, Simons CT, Dessirier JM, Carstens E: Sensitization of trigeminal caudalis neuronal responses to intraoral acid and salt stimuli and desensitization by nicotine. Pain. 2002 Aug;98(3):277-86. [PubMed:12127029 ]
  7. Punnonen R, Lovgren T, Kouvonen I: Demonstration of estrogen receptors in the skin. J Endocrinol Invest. 1980 Jul-Sep;3(3):217-21. [PubMed:7430556 ]
  8. Kuznetsov DD, Alsikafi NF, O'Connor RC, Steinberg GD: Intravesical valrubicin in the treatment of carcinoma in situ of the bladder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2001 Jun;2(6):1009-13. [PubMed:11585003 ]
  9. Punnonen R, Lovgren T, Kouvonen I: Demonstration of estrogen receptors in the skin. J Endocrinol Invest. 1980 Jul-Sep;3(3):217-21. [PubMed:6152964 ]
  10. Kubota K, Maibach HI: In vitro percutaneous permeation of betamethasone and betamethasone 17-valerate. J Pharm Sci. 1993 Oct;82(10):1039-45. [PubMed:8254489 ]
  11. Tauber VU: [Percutaneous absorption of diflucortolone valerate in guinea pigs and man (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(7b):1479-84. [PubMed:1036943 ]
  12. Saunders DM, Hunter JC, Shutt DA, O'Neill BJ: The effect of oestradiol valerate therapy on coagulation factors and lipid and oestrogen levels in oophorectomised women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1978 Aug;18(3):198-201. [PubMed:283783 ]
  13. Abuknesha RA, Luk C: Paraquat enzyme-immunoassays in biological samples: assessment of the effects of hapten-protein bridge structures on assay sensitivity. Analyst. 2005 Jun;130(6):956-63. Epub 2005 Apr 25. [PubMed:15912246 ]
  14. Wilbur DS, Hamlin DK, Chyan MK, Kegley BB, Pathare PM: Biotin reagents for antibody pretargeting. 5. Additional studies of biotin conjugate design to provide biotinidase stability. Bioconjug Chem. 2001 Jul-Aug;12(4):616-23. [PubMed:11459467 ]
  15. Tauber VU, Amin M, Fuchs P, Speck U: [Comparative studies in man on the percutaneous absorption of diflucortolone valerate, betamethasone-17-valerate, beclomethasone dipropionate and fluocinolone acetonide]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(7b):1492-5. [PubMed:1036945 ]
  16. Lotti M, Moretto A: Promotion of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy by certain esterase inhibitors. Chem Biol Interact. 1999 May 14;119-120:519-24. [PubMed:10421491 ]
  17. Jacob TJ, Fraser C, Wang L, Walker V, O'Connor S: Psychophysical evaluation of responses to pleasant and mal-odour stimulation in human subjects; adaptation, dose response and gender differences. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003 Apr;48(1):67-80. [PubMed:12694902 ]
  18. Vilska S, Punnonen R, Rauramo L: Long-term post-menopausal hormone therapy and serum HDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Maturitas. 1983 Aug;5(2):97-104. [PubMed:6415365 ]
  19. Bottcher MF, Nordin EK, Sandin A, Midtvedt T, Bjorksten B: Microflora-associated characteristics in faeces from allergic and nonallergic infants. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000 Nov;30(11):1590-6. [PubMed:11069568 ]
  20. Gysler A, Kleuser B, Sippl W, Lange K, Korting HC, Holtje HD, Korting HC: Skin penetration and metabolism of topical glucocorticoids in reconstructed epidermis and in excised human skin. Pharm Res. 1999 Sep;16(9):1386-91. [PubMed:10496654 ]
  21. Yuille S, Reichardt N, Panda S, Dunbar H, Mulder IE: Human gut bacteria as potent class I histone deacetylase inhibitors in vitro through production of butyric acid and valeric acid. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 27;13(7):e0201073. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201073. eCollection 2018. [PubMed:30052654 ]
  22. STADTMAN ER, STADTMAN TC, BARKER HA: Tracer experiments on the mechanism of synthesis of valeric and caproic acids by Clostridium kluyveri. J Biol Chem. 1949 Apr;178(2):677-82. [PubMed:18116989 ]