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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2020-11-24 22:13:02 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000126
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common Name2-Isopropylmalic acid
Description2-Isopropylmalic acid is an alpha-hydroxy organic acid regularly occurring in urine of healthy individuals (PMIDs 2338430, 544608), and in hemofiltrates. (PMID 7251751 ) 2-Isopropylmalic acid is elevated during fasting and diabetic ketoacidosis. (PMID 1591279 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S)-2-Hydroxy-2-isopropylsuccinic acidChEBI
(2S)-2-IsopropylmalateChEBI
(3S)-3-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acidChEBI
(3S)-3-Carboxy-3-hydroxyisocaproic acidChEBI
(S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(isopropyl)succinic acidChEBI
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoateChEBI
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxyisocaproateChEBI
(2S)-2-Hydroxy-2-isopropylsuccinateGenerator
(2S)-2-Isopropylmalic acidGenerator
(3S)-3-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoateGenerator
(3S)-3-Carboxy-3-hydroxyisocaproateGenerator
(S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(isopropyl)succinateGenerator
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acidGenerator
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxyisocaproic acidGenerator
2-IsopropylmalateGenerator
2-Hydroxy-2-isopropylsuccinateHMDB
2-Hydroxy-2-isopropylsuccinic acidHMDB
2-Isopropyl-2-hydroxybutanedioateHMDB
2-Isopropyl-2-hydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
2-Isopropyl-malic acidHMDB
a-IsopropylmalateHMDB
a-Isopropylmalic acidHMDB
alpha-IsopropylmalateHMDB
alpha-Isopropylmalic acidHMDB
(2S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(1-methylethyl)butanedioic acidHMDB
(2S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(propan-2-yl)butanedioic acidHMDB
(S)-(+)-2-Isopropylmalic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-2-(1-methylethyl)butanedioic acidHMDB
Α-isopropylmalateHMDB
Α-isopropylmalic acidHMDB
2-Isopropylmalic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H12O5
Average Mass176.1672 Da
Monoisotopic Mass176.06847 Da
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-hydroxy-2-(propan-2-yl)butanedioic acid
Traditional Name2-isopropyl-malic acid
CAS Registry Number3237-44-3
SMILES
CC(C)[C@@](O)(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H12O5/c1-4(2)7(12,6(10)11)3-5(8)9/h4,12H,3H2,1-2H3,(H,8,9)(H,10,11)/t7-/m0/s1
InChI KeyBITYXLXUCSKTJS-ZETCQYMHSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentus
Actinidia chinensis
Agaricus bisporus
Agave
Allium ampeloprasum
Allium ascalonicum
Allium cepa
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium sativum
Allium schoenoprasum
Allium tuberosum
Aloysia triphylla
Amaranthus
Amelanchier alnifolia
Anacardium occidentale
Ananas comosus
Anethum graveolens
Angelica keiskei
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolens
Apium graveolens var. dulce
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arachis hypogaea
Arctium lappa
Armoracia rusticana
Artemisia dracunculus
Artemisia vulgaris
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asparagus officinalis
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Avena sativa L.
Averrhoa carambola
Basella alba
Benincasa hispida
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Borago officinalis
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica napus var. napus
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italica
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapa
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum alicastrum
Byrsonima crassifolia
Cajanus cajan
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibarius
Capparis spinosa
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuum
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Carica papaya L.
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya
Carya illinoinensis
Castanea
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Ceratonia siliqua
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamerion angustifolium
Chenopodium album
Chenopodium quinoa
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybus
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Cirsium
Citrullus lanatus
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus maxima
Citrus paradisi
Citrus reticulata
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)
Cocos nucifera
Coffea arabica L.
Coffea canephora
Colocasia esculenta
Corchorus olitorius
Coriandrum sativum L.
Corylus
Corylus avellana
Crateva religiosa
Crocus sativus
Cucumis melo
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maxima
Cucurbita moschata
Cuminum cyminum
Curcuma longa
Cydonia oblonga
Cymbopogon citratus
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Daucus carota
Daucus carota ssp. sativus
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Diospyros
Diospyros kaki
Diospyros virginiana
Durio zibethinus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elaeis
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomum
Empetrum nigrum
Eragrostis tef
Eriobotrya japonica
Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Eutrema japonicum
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fagopyrum tataricum
Fagus
Feijoa sellowiana
Ficus carica
Flammulina velutipes
Foeniculum vulgare
Fragaria x ananassa
Garcinia mangostana
Gaylussacia baccata
Ginkgo biloba
Glycine max
Gossypium
Grifola frondosa
Hedysarum alpinum
Helianthus annuus L.
Helianthus tuberosus
Hibiscus sabbariffa
Hippophae rhamnoides
Hordeum vulgare
Hyssopus officinalis L.
Illicium verum
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea batatas
Juglans
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra L.
Juglans regia
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativa
Lagenaria siceraria
Lathyrus sativus
Laurus nobilis L.
Lens culinaris
Lentinus edodes
Lepidium sativum
Levisticum officinale
Linum usitatissimum
Litchi chinensis
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus
Lupinus albus
Macadamia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Malpighia emarginata
Malus
Malus pumila
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Matricaria recutita
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Medicago sativa
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha spicata
Mentha x piperita
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Momordica charantia
Morchellaceae
Morella rubra
Moringa oleifera
Morus
Morus nigra
Musa acuminata
Musa x paradisiaca
Myrica
Myristica fragrans
Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nephelium lappaceum
Nuphar lutea
Ocimum basilicum
Oenothera biennis
Olea europaea
Opuntia
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia macrorhiza
Origanum majorana
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgare
Origanum X majoricum
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativa
Pachyrhizus erosus
Panax ginseng
Pangium edule
Panicum miliaceum
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
Pediomelum esculentum
Perideridia oregana
Persea americana
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgaris
Phoenix dactylifera
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllostachys edulis
Physalis
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisum
Pinus
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum L.
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativum
Pleurotus ostreatus
Polygonum alpinum
Portulaca oleracea
Pouteria sapota
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus avium
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasus
Prunus domestica
Prunus dulcis
Prunus persica
Prunus persica var. nucipersica
Prunus persica var. persica
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajava
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Punica granatum
Pyrus communis
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus
Raphanus sativus
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rheum rhabarbarum
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Rosa
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilis
Rumex
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix pulchra
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia officinalis
Salvia rosmarinus
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra L.
Satureja hortensis L.
Satureja montana
Scorzonera hispanica
Secale cereale
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicum
Sesbania bispinosa
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium
Solanum lycopersicum
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum
Solanum melongena
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosum
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolor
Spinacia oleracea
Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tamarindus indica
Taraxacum officinale
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thelesperma
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Triticum
Triticum aestivum
Triticum durum
Triticum spelta
Triticum turanicum
Typha angustifolia
Vaccinium
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Vanilla
Verbena officinalis
Viburnum edule
Vicia faba
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularis
Vigna mungo
Vigna radiata
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
Vitis
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis vinifera L.
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Zea mays L.
Zingiber officinale
Zizania
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coliKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentHydroxy fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Short-chain hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point144 - 146 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility181 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.29ALOGPS
logP0.21ChemAxon
logS0.01ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.63ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity38.58 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000402
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB030115
KNApSAcK IDC00019690
Chemspider ID4444155
KEGG Compound IDC02504
BioCyc ID3-CARBOXY-3-HYDROXY-ISOCAPROATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkIsopropylmalic acid
METLIN ID339
PubChem Compound5280523
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID35128
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
General References
  1. Spiteller M, Spiteller G: [Occurrence of alpha-alkyl-substituted malic acids, and beta-hydroxy-beta-alkyl-substituted dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acid derivatives in normal urine (author's transl)]. J Chromatogr. 1979 Nov 11;164(3):319-29. [PubMed:544608 ]
  2. Liebich HM, Forst C: Basic profiles of organic acids in urine. J Chromatogr. 1990 Jan 26;525(1):1-14. [PubMed:2338430 ]
  3. Verhaeghe BJ, Van Bocxlaer JF, De Leenheer AP: Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric identification of 3-hydroxydicarboxylic acids in urine. Biol Mass Spectrom. 1992 Jan;21(1):27-32. [PubMed:1591279 ]
  4. Pinkston D, Spiteller G, Von Henning H, Matthaei D: High resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry of the methyl esters of organic acids from uremic hemofiltrates. J Chromatogr. 1981 Apr 10;223(1):1-19. [PubMed:7251751 ]
  5. Wishart DS, Li C, Marcu A, Badran H, Pon A, Budinski Z, Patron J, Lipton D, Cao X, Oler E, Li K, Paccoud M, Hong C, Guo AC, Chan C, Wei W, Ramirez-Gaona M: PathBank: a comprehensive pathway database for model organisms. Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 Jan 8;48(D1):D470-D478. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz861. [PubMed:31602464 ]