Np mrd loader

You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on NP-MRD.
Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:39:44 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000120
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameL-Cysteine
DescriptionCysteine (Cys), also known as L-cysteine is an alpha-amino acid. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. L-alanine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.E., The amino acids used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Cysteine is found in all organisms ranging from bacteria to plants to animals. It is classified as an aliphatic, non-polar, sulfur-containing amino acid. Cysteine is an important source of sulfur in human metabolism, and although it is classified as a non-essential amino acid, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. Cysteine can occasionally be considered as an essential or conditionally essential amino acid. Cysteine is unique amongst the twenty natural amino acids as it contains a thiol group. Thiol groups can undergo oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions; when cysteine is oxidized it can form cystine, which is two cysteine residues joined by a disulfide bond. This reaction is reversible since the reduction of this disulphide bond regenerates two cysteine molecules. The disulphide bonds of cystine are crucial to defining the structures of many proteins. Cysteine is often involved in electron-transfer reactions, and help the enzyme catalyze its reaction. Cysteine is also part of the antioxidant glutathione. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a form of cysteine where an acetyl group is attached to cysteine's nitrogen atom and is sold as a dietary supplement. Cysteine is named after cystine, which comes from the Greek word kustis meaning bladder (cystine was first isolated from kidney stones). Oxidation of cysteine can produce a disulfide bond with another thiol and further oxidation can produce sulphfinic or sulfonic acids. The cysteine thiol group is also a nucleophile and can undergo addition and substitution reactions. Thiol groups become much more reactive when they are ionized, and cysteine residues in proteins have pKa values close to neutrality, so they are often in their reactive thiolate form in the cell. The thiol group also has a high affinity for heavy metals and proteins containing cysteine will bind metals such as mercury, lead, and cadmium tightly. Due to this ability to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Cysteine is important in energy metabolism. As cystine, it is a structural component of many tissues and hormones. Cysteine has clinical uses ranging from treating baldness to psoriasis to preventing smoker's hack. In some cases, oral cysteine therapy has proved excellent for treatment of asthmatics, enabling them to stop theophylline and other medications. Cysteine also enhances the effect of topically applied silver, tin, and zinc salts in preventing dental cavities. In the future, cysteine may play a role in the treatment of cobalt toxicity, diabetes, psychosis, cancer, and seizures (http://Www.Dcnutrition.Com/AminoAcids/). Cysteine has been identified as a uremic toxin according to the European Uremic Toxin Working Group (PMID: 22626821 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acidChEBI
(2R)-2-Amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acidChEBI
(R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acidChEBI
CChEBI
CysChEBI
CYSTEINEChEBI
e 920ChEBI
e-920ChEBI
e920ChEBI
FREE cysteineChEBI
L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acidChEBI
L-CysteinChEBI
L-ZysteinChEBI
EcolanKegg
(2R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoateGenerator
(2R)-2-Amino-3-sulfanylpropanoateGenerator
(2R)-2-Amino-3-sulphanylpropanoateGenerator
(2R)-2-Amino-3-sulphanylpropanoic acidGenerator
(R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoateGenerator
L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionateGenerator
(+)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acidHMDB
(R)-(+)-CysteineHMDB
(R)-2-Amino-3-mercapto-propanoateHMDB
(R)-2-Amino-3-mercapto-propanoic acidHMDB
(R)-CysteineHMDB
2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoateHMDB
2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acidHMDB
2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionateHMDB
2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acidHMDB
3-Mercapto-L-alanineHMDB
AcetylcysteineHMDB
alpha-Amino-beta-thiolpropionic acidHMDB
b-MercaptoalanineHMDB
beta-MercaptoalanineHMDB
CarbocysteineHMDB
CisteinaHMDB
CisteinumHMDB
CysteinHMDB
CysteinumHMDB
Half-cystineHMDB
L CysteineHMDB
L-(+)-CysteineHMDB
L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoateHMDB
L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acidHMDB
PolycysteineHMDB
ThioserineHMDB
Cysteine hydrochlorideHMDB
Zinc cysteinateHMDB
Half cystineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2S
Average Mass121.1580 Da
Monoisotopic Mass121.01975 Da
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid
Traditional NameL-cysteine
CAS Registry Number52-90-4
SMILES
N[C@@H](CS)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2S/c4-2(1-7)3(5)6/h2,7H,1,4H2,(H,5,6)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyXUJNEKJLAYXESH-REOHCLBHSA-N
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Not Available
Chemical Shift Submissions
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)v.dorna83@yahoo.comNot AvailableNot Available2021-07-25View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaLOTUS Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiLOTUS Database
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita foetidissimaLOTUS Database
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Daphnia magnaLOTUS Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Indigofera schimperiLOTUS Database
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Nicotiana tabacumLOTUS Database
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
OdocoileusFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
Ripariosida hermaphroditaLOTUS Database
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salmonella entericaLOTUS Database
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Streptomyces clavuligerusLOTUS Database
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Telekia speciosaLOTUS Database
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
ThelespermaFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Treculia africanaLOTUS Database
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Trypanosoma bruceiLOTUS Database
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cysteine and derivatives. Cysteine and derivatives are compounds containing cysteine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of cysteine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentCysteine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cysteine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino acid
  • Alkylthiol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point220 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility277 mg/mL at 25 °CBeilstein Handbook of Organic Chemistry (Handbuch der Organischen Chemie), 4th Edition
LogP-2.49Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility23.1 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-0.72ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity28.22 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.41 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000574
DrugBank IDDB00151
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012678
KNApSAcK IDC00001351
Chemspider ID5653
KEGG Compound IDC00097
BioCyc IDCYS
BiGG ID33843
Wikipedia LinkCysteine
METLIN ID5556
PubChem Compound5862
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17561
Good Scents IDrw1018061
References
General References
  1. Yu FH, Westenbroek RE, Silos-Santiago I, McCormick KA, Lawson D, Ge P, Ferriera H, Lilly J, DiStefano PS, Catterall WA, Scheuer T, Curtis R: Sodium channel beta4, a new disulfide-linked auxiliary subunit with similarity to beta2. J Neurosci. 2003 Aug 20;23(20):7577-85. [PubMed:12930796 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [PubMed:6696735 ]
  4. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [PubMed:12297216 ]
  5. Kersemans V, Cornelissen B, Kersemans K, Bauwens M, Achten E, Dierckx RA, Mertens J, Slegers G: In vivo characterization of 123/125I-2-iodo-L-phenylalanine in an R1M rhabdomyosarcoma athymic mouse model as a potential tumor tracer for SPECT. J Nucl Med. 2005 Mar;46(3):532-9. [PubMed:15750170 ]
  6. Sandmann J, Schwedhelm KS, Tsikas D: Specific transport of S-nitrosocysteine in human red blood cells: Implications for formation of S-nitrosothiols and transport of NO bioactivity within the vasculature. FEBS Lett. 2005 Aug 1;579(19):4119-24. [PubMed:16023102 ]
  7. Paivalainen S, Suokas M, Lahti O, Heape AM: Degraded myelin-associated glycoprotein (dMAG) formation from pure human brain myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is not mediated by calpain or cathepsin L-like activities. J Neurochem. 2003 Feb;84(3):533-45. [PubMed:12558973 ]
  8. Iyer S, Leonidas DD, Swaminathan GJ, Maglione D, Battisti M, Tucci M, Persico MG, Acharya KR: The crystal structure of human placenta growth factor-1 (PlGF-1), an angiogenic protein, at 2.0 A resolution. J Biol Chem. 2001 Apr 13;276(15):12153-61. Epub 2000 Nov 7. [PubMed:11069911 ]
  9. Nishiya Y, Yoshida Y, Yoshimura M, Fukamachi H, Nakano Y: Homogeneous enzymatic assay for L-cysteine with betaC-S lyase. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Nov;69(11):2244-6. [PubMed:16306712 ]
  10. Santamaria I, Velasco G, Cazorla M, Fueyo A, Campo E, Lopez-Otin C: Cathepsin L2, a novel human cysteine proteinase produced by breast and colorectal carcinomas. Cancer Res. 1998 Apr 15;58(8):1624-30. [PubMed:9563472 ]
  11. Eriksson A, Tohonen V, Wedell A, Nordqvist K: Isolation of the human testatin gene and analysis in patients with abnormal gonadal development. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002 Jan;8(1):8-15. [PubMed:11756564 ]
  12. Kaminska J, Wisniewska A, Koscielak J: Chemical modifications of alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase define amino acid residues of catalytic importance. Biochimie. 2003 Mar-Apr;85(3-4):303-10. [PubMed:12770769 ]
  13. Li Y, Gamper N, Shapiro MS: Single-channel analysis of KCNQ K+ channels reveals the mechanism of augmentation by a cysteine-modifying reagent. J Neurosci. 2004 Jun 2;24(22):5079-90. [PubMed:15175377 ]
  14. Lindzen M, Gottschalk KE, Fuzesi M, Garty H, Karlish SJ: Structural interactions between FXYD proteins and Na+,K+-ATPase: alpha/beta/FXYD subunit stoichiometry and cross-linking. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 3;281(9):5947-55. Epub 2005 Dec 21. [PubMed:16373350 ]
  15. Norris FA, Wilson MP, Wallis TS, Galyov EE, Majerus PW: SopB, a protein required for virulence of Salmonella dublin, is an inositol phosphate phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Nov 24;95(24):14057-9. [PubMed:9826652 ]
  16. Foss CA, Mease RC, Fan H, Wang Y, Ravert HT, Dannals RF, Olszewski RT, Heston WD, Kozikowski AP, Pomper MG: Radiolabeled small-molecule ligands for prostate-specific membrane antigen: in vivo imaging in experimental models of prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 1;11(11):4022-8. [PubMed:15930336 ]
  17. Kozaki K, Miyaishi O, Asai N, Iida K, Sakata K, Hayashi M, Nishida T, Matsuyama M, Shimizu S, Kaneda T, et al.: Tissue distribution of ERp61 and association of its increased expression with IgG production in hybridoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 1994 Aug;213(2):348-58. [PubMed:8050492 ]
  18. Amberger VR, Hensel T, Ogata N, Schwab ME: Spreading and migration of human glioma and rat C6 cells on central nervous system myelin in vitro is correlated with tumor malignancy and involves a metalloproteolytic activity. Cancer Res. 1998 Jan 1;58(1):149-58. [PubMed:9426071 ]
  19. Zhang JT, Li QX, Wang D, Zhu ZL, Yang YH, Cui DS, Wang MW, Sun XF: Up-regulation of PINCH in the stroma of oral squamous cell carcinoma predicts nodal metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2005 Dec;14(6):1519-22. [PubMed:16273248 ]
  20. Taveau M, Bourg N, Sillon G, Roudaut C, Bartoli M, Richard I: Calpain 3 is activated through autolysis within the active site and lyses sarcomeric and sarcolemmal components. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Dec;23(24):9127-35. [PubMed:14645524 ]
  21. Naisbitt DJ, Vilar FJ, Stalford AC, Wilkins EG, Pirmohamed M, Park BK: Plasma cysteine deficiency and decreased reduction of nitrososulfamethoxazole with HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Dec 10;16(18):1929-38. [PubMed:11153075 ]
  22. Baker DH, Czarnecki-Maulden GL: Pharmacologic role of cysteine in ameliorating or exacerbating mineral toxicities. J Nutr. 1987 Jun;117(6):1003-10. [PubMed:3298579 ]
  23. Bulaj G, Kortemme T, Goldenberg DP: Ionization-reactivity relationships for cysteine thiols in polypeptides. Biochemistry. 1998 Jun 23;37(25):8965-72. [PubMed:9636038 ]
  24. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [PubMed:22626821 ]