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Record Information
Created at2006-02-22 11:10:26 UTC
Updated at2021-06-29 00:47:13 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000047
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameParaxanthine
DescriptionParaxanthine, also known as p-xanthine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety. Paraxanthine exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Within humans, paraxanthine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, paraxanthine and formaldehyde can be biosynthesized from caffeine; which is catalyzed by the enzyme cytochrome P450 1A2. In addition, paraxanthine and acetyl-CoA can be converted into 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil through its interaction with the enzyme arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2. In humans, paraxanthine is involved in caffeine metabolism.
Chemical FormulaC7H8N4O2
Average Mass180.1640 Da
Monoisotopic Mass180.06473 Da
IUPAC Name1,7-dimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Nameparaxanthine
CAS Registry Number611-59-6
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Camellia assamicaKNApSAcK Database
Camellia kissiKNApSAcK Database
Camellia sinensisKNApSAcK Database
Camellia taliensisKNApSAcK Database
Camellia toliensisKNApSAcK Database
Citrus limonKNApSAcK Database
Citrus maximaKNApSAcK Database
Citrus paradisiKNApSAcK Database
Coffea arabicaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea canephoraKNApSAcK Database
Coffea dewevreiKNApSAcK Database
Coffea eugeniodesKNApSAcK Database
Coffea kianjavatensisKNApSAcK Database
Coffea libericaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea racemosaKNApSAcK Database
Coffea salvatrixKNApSAcK Database
Cola sp.KNApSAcK Database
Ilex paraguariensisKNApSAcK Database
Paullinia cupanaKNApSAcK Database
Paullinia trifoliataKNApSAcK Database
Theobroma cacaoKNApSAcK Database
Theobroma grandiflorumKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentXanthines
Alternative Parents
  • Xanthine
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purinone
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point351 - 352 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility9.13 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.76ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.87ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity46.72 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022714
KNApSAcK IDC00039930
Chemspider ID4525
KEGG Compound IDC13747
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkParaxanthine
PubChem Compound4687
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID25858
Good Scents IDNot Available
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Christensen M, Andersson K, Dalen P, Mirghani RA, Muirhead GJ, Nordmark A, Tybring G, Wahlberg A, Yasar U, Bertilsson L: The Karolinska cocktail for phenotyping of five human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Jun;73(6):517-28. [PubMed:12811361 ]
  3. Fuhr U, Rost KL: Simple and reliable CYP1A2 phenotyping by the paraxanthine/caffeine ratio in plasma and in saliva. Pharmacogenetics. 1994 Jun;4(3):109-16. [PubMed:7920690 ]
  4. Tanaka E: Simultaneous determination of caffeine and its primary demethylated metabolites in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1992 Mar 27;575(2):311-4. [PubMed:1629311 ]
  5. Horrigan LA, Kelly JP, Connor TJ: Immunomodulatory effects of caffeine: friend or foe? Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep;111(3):877-92. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16540173 ]
  6. Holstege A, Kurz M, Weinbeck M, Gerok W: Excretion of caffeine and its primary degradation products into bile. J Hepatol. 1993 Jan;17(1):67-73. [PubMed:8445222 ]
  7. Granfors MT, Backman JT, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ: Oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene markedly increase plasma concentrations and effects of tizanidine by inhibiting cytochrome P450 1A2. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Oct;78(4):400-11. [PubMed:16198659 ]
  8. Blanchard J, Weber CW, Shearer LE: HPLC analysis of methylxanthines in human breast milk. J Chromatogr Sci. 1990 Dec;28(12):640-2. [PubMed:2292610 ]
  9. Delahunty T, Schoendorfer D: Caffeine demethylation monitoring using a transdermal sweat patch. J Anal Toxicol. 1998 Nov-Dec;22(7):596-600. [PubMed:9847011 ]
  10. Holland DT, Godfredsen KA, Page T, Connor JD: Simple high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of serum caffeine and paraxanthine following rapid sample preparation. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Apr 10;707(1-2):105-10. [PubMed:9613939 ]
  11. Fuhr U, Rost KL, Engelhardt R, Sachs M, Liermann D, Belloc C, Beaune P, Janezic S, Grant D, Meyer UA, Staib AH: Evaluation of caffeine as a test drug for CYP1A2, NAT2 and CYP2E1 phenotyping in man by in vivo versus in vitro correlations. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Apr;6(2):159-76. [PubMed:9156694 ]
  12. Zaigler M, Rietbrock S, Szymanski J, Dericks-Tan JS, Staib AH, Fuhr U: Variation of CYP1A2-dependent caffeine metabolism during menstrual cycle in healthy women. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 May;38(5):235-44. [PubMed:10839467 ]
  13. Blanchard J, Weber CW, Shearer LE: Methylxanthine levels in breast milk of lactating women of different ethnic and socioeconomic classes. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1992 Apr;13(3):187-96. [PubMed:1576327 ]
  14. Wahllander A, Renner E, Karlaganis G: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of dimethylxanthine metabolites of caffeine in human plasma. J Chromatogr. 1985 Mar 22;338(2):369-75. [PubMed:3998024 ]
  15. Koch JP, ten Tusscher GW, Koppe JG, Guchelaar HJ: Validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography assay for quantification of caffeine and paraxanthine in human serum in the context of CYP1A2 phenotyping. Biomed Chromatogr. 1999 Jun;13(4):309-14. [PubMed:10416066 ]
  16. Sachse C, Ruschen S, Dettling M, Schley J, Bauer S, Muller-Oerlinghausen B, Roots I, Brockmoller J: Flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) polymorphism in a white population: allele frequencies, mutation linkage, and functional effects on clozapine and caffeine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Oct;66(4):431-8. [PubMed:10546928 ]