Np mrd loader

You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on NP-MRD.
Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-15 04:56:48 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000018
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameTrigonelline
DescriptionTrigonelline, also known as caffearin or gynesine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus. It is also found in coffee, where it may help to prevent dental caries by preventing the bacteria Streptococcus mutans from adhering to teeth. Trigonelline is an alkaloid with chemical formula C7H7NO2 and CAS number 535-83-1. Trigonelline is a product of the metabolism of niacin (vitamin B3) which is excreted in the urine. High amounts of trigonelline have been found in arabica coffee, fenugreeks, and common peas. Another foods such as yellow bell peppers, orange bellpeppers and muskmelons also contain trigonelline but in lower concentrations. Trigonelline has also been detected but not quantified in several different foods, such as rices, triticales, alfalfa, cereals and cereal products, and ryes. Trigonelline in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of coffee, legumes and soy products.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Methyl-3-pyridiniumcarboxylateChEBI
1-MethylnicotinateChEBI
1-Methylpyridinio-3-carboxylateChEBI
3-Carboxy-1-methylpyridinium hydroxide inner saltChEBI
Betain nicotinateChEBI
Betaine nicotinateChEBI
CaffearinChEBI
CaffearineChEBI
CoffearinChEBI
GynesineChEBI
N'-methylnicotinateChEBI
N-Methyl-nicotinateChEBI
Nicotinic acid N-methylbetaineChEBI
TrigenellineChEBI
TrigonellinChEBI
1-Methyl-3-pyridiniumcarboxylic acidGenerator
1-Methylnicotinic acidGenerator
1-Methylpyridinio-3-carboxylic acidGenerator
Betain nicotinic acidGenerator
Betaine nicotinic acidGenerator
N'-methylnicotinic acidGenerator
N-Methyl-nicotinic acidGenerator
Nicotinate N-methylbetaineGenerator
N-Methylnicotinic acidHMDB
Trigonelline chlorideHMDB
Trigonelline iodideHMDB
Trigonelline tosylateHMDB
Trigonelline ionHMDB
3-Carboxy-1-methyl-pyridinium hydroxide inner saltHMDB
CoffearineHMDB
N-MethylnicotinateHMDB
TrigenollineHMDB
TrigonellineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC7H7NO2
Average Mass137.1360 Da
Monoisotopic Mass137.04768 Da
IUPAC Name1-methylpyridin-1-ium-3-carboxylate
Traditional Nametrigonelline
CAS Registry Number535-83-1
SMILES
C[N+]1=CC=CC(=C1)C([O-])=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H7NO2/c1-8-4-2-3-6(5-8)7(9)10/h2-5H,1H3
InChI KeyWWNNZCOKKKDOPX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25.16 MHz, D2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 1H] 2D NMR Spectrum (experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abrus precatoriusKNApSAcK Database
Achillea millefoliumKNApSAcK Database
Aeschyomene indicaKNApSAcK Database
Astragalus sinicusKNApSAcK Database
Astragalus wootoniiKNApSAcK Database
Bauhinia candicansKNApSAcK Database
Bauhinia forficataKNApSAcK Database
Benincasa hispidaKNApSAcK Database
Canavalia ensiformisKNApSAcK Database
Cannabis sativaKNApSAcK Database
Carica papayaKNApSAcK Database
Castanea sativaKNApSAcK Database
Cicer arietinumKNApSAcK Database
Coffea spp.KNApSAcK Database
Cucurbita moschataKNApSAcK Database
Desmodium triflorumKNApSAcK Database
Dictamnus dasycarpusKNApSAcK Database
Glycine maxKNApSAcK Database
Gnetum parvifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis LKNApSAcK Database
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.KNApSAcK Database
Lablab purpureusKNApSAcK Database
Macroptilium atropurpureumKNApSAcK Database
Medicago sativaKNApSAcK Database
Melilotus officinalisKNApSAcK Database
Mirabilis jalapaKNApSAcK Database
Phaseolus vulgarisKNApSAcK Database
Pinellia ternataKNApSAcK Database
Pisum sativumKNApSAcK Database
Quisqualis indicaKNApSAcK Database
Retama raetamKNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicumKNApSAcK Database
Solanum melongenaKNApSAcK Database
Strophanthus spp.KNApSAcK Database
Trifolium pratenseKNApSAcK Database
Trigonella foenum-graceumKNApSAcK Database
Trigonella foenum-graecumKNApSAcK Database
Vigna unguiculataKNApSAcK Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Eusynstyela latericiusKNApSAcK Database
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • N-methylpyridinium
  • Pyridinium
  • Pyridine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic salt
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point218 °Chttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Trigonelline#section=Melting-Point
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLhttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Trigonelline#section=Solubility
LogP-2.53https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Trigonelline#section=LogP
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.32 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.3ALOGPS
logP-3.5ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area44.01 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity48.15 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
External Links
HMDB IDHMDB0000875
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB002237
KNApSAcK IDC00001555
Chemspider ID5369
KEGG Compound IDC01004
BioCyc IDMETHYLNICOTINATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTrigonelline
METLIN ID273
PubChem Compound5570
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18123
Good Scents IDrw1698551
References
General References
  1. Nishina Y, Sato K, Miura R, Shiga K: Substrate recognition and activation mechanism of D-amino acid oxidase: a study using substrate analogs. J Biochem. 2000 Aug;128(2):213-23. [PubMed:10920257 ]
  2. Slow S, Miller WE, McGregor DO, Lee MB, Lever M, George PM, Chambers ST: Trigonelline is not responsible for the acute increase in plasma homocysteine following ingestion of instant coffee. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;58(9):1253-6. [PubMed:15054441 ]
  3. Dellow WJ, Chambers ST, Lever M, Lunt H, Robson RA: Elevated glycine betaine excretion in diabetes mellitus patients is associated with proximal tubular dysfunction and hyperglycemia. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1999 Feb;43(2):91-9. [PubMed:10221661 ]
  4. Rozan P, Kuo YH, Lambein F: Free amino acids present in commercially available seedlings sold for human consumption. A potential hazard for consumers. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Mar;48(3):716-23. [PubMed:10725139 ]
  5. Daglia M, Tarsi R, Papetti A, Grisoli P, Dacarro C, Pruzzo C, Gazzani G: Antiadhesive effect of green and roasted coffee on Streptococcus mutans' adhesive properties on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Feb 27;50(5):1225-9. [PubMed:11853508 ]
  6. Tohda C, Kuboyama T, Komatsu K: Search for natural products related to regeneration of the neuronal network. Neurosignals. 2005;14(1-2):34-45. [PubMed:15956813 ]