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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:42:08 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000017
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameGentisic acid
DescriptionGentisic acid, also known as gentisate or 2,5-dioxybenzoate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are compounds containing a hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxyl and a hydroxyl groups. Gentisic acid is also classified as a dihydroxybenzoic acid. It is a derivative of benzoic acid and a minor (1%) product of the metabolic break down of aspirin, which is excreted by the kidneys. Gentisic acid is found in essentially all organisms ranging from bacteria to fungi to plants to animals. Gentisic acid has been associated with a number of useful effects on human health and exhibits anti-inflammatory, antigenotoxic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antimicrobial, and especially antioxidant activities (PMID: 31825145 ). It is widely distributed in plants as a secondary plant product such as Gentiana spp., Citrus spp., Vitis vinifera, Pterocarpus santalinus, Helianthus tuberosus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Olea europaea, and Sesamum indicum and in fruits such as avocados, batoko plum, kiwi fruits, apple, bitter melon, black berries, pears, and some mushrooms (PMID: 31825145 ). Gentisic acid is found in higher concentrations in a number of foods such as tarragons, common thymes, and common sages and in a lower concentration in grape wines, rosemaries, and sweet marjorams. Gentisic acid has also been shown to act as a pathogen-inducible signal for the activation of plant defenses in tomato plants and cucumbers (PMID: 16321412 ; Https://Doi.Org/10.1094/MPMI.1999.12.3.227).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,5-DihydroxybenzoateChEBI
5-Hydroxysalicylic acidChEBI
GentisateChEBI
Hydroquinonecarboxylic acidChEBI
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acidKegg
5-HydroxysalicylateGenerator
HydroquinonecarboxylateGenerator
2,5-DioxybenzoateHMDB
2,5-Dioxybenzoic acidHMDB
3,6-DihydroxybenzoateHMDB
3,6-Dihydroxybenzoic acidHMDB
5-Hydroxy-salicylateHMDB
5-Hydroxy-salicylic acidHMDB
CarboxyhydroquinoneHMDB
DihydroxybenzoicacidHMDB
GensigenHMDB
GensigonHMDB
GentisinateHMDB
Gentisinic acidHMDB
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, monosodium saltHMDB
Lithium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoateHMDB
Hydroquinone carboxylic acidHMDB
Gentisic acidChEBI
Chemical FormulaC7H6O4
Average Mass154.1210 Da
Monoisotopic Mass154.02661 Da
IUPAC Name2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid
Traditional Name2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid
CAS Registry Number490-79-9
SMILES
OC(=O)C1=C(O)C=CC(O)=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H6O4/c8-4-1-2-6(9)5(3-4)7(10)11/h1-3,8-9H,(H,10,11)
InChI KeyWXTMDXOMEHJXQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentus
Actinidia chinensis
Agaricus bisporus
Agave
Allium ampeloprasum
Allium ascalonicum
Allium cepa
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium obliquumPlant
Allium sativum
Allium schoenoprasum
Allium tuberosum
Aloysia triphylla
Amaranthus
Amelanchier alnifolia
Anacardium occidentale
Ananas comosus
Anas platyrhynchos
Anatidae
Anethum foeniculumPlant
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskei
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Anser anser
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulce
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappa
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgaris
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asparagus officinalis
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Avena sativa L.
Averrhoa carambola
Basella alba
Benincasa hispida
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Bison bison
Borago officinalis
Bos taurus
Bos taurus X Bison bison
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica napus var. napus
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italica
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapa
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum alicastrum
Bubalus bubalis
Byrsonima crassifolia
Cajanus cajan
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibarius
Capparis spinosa
Capra aegagrus hircus
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuum
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya
Carya illinoinensis
Castanea
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Catharanthus roseusPlant
Ceratonia siliqua
Cervidae
Cervus canadensis
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamerion angustifolium
Chenopodium album
Chenopodium quinoa
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybus
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Cirsium
Citrullus lanatus
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus cultivarsKNApSAcK Database
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus limoniaKNApSAcK Database
Citrus maxima
Citrus paradisi
Citrus reticulata
Citrus spp.KNApSAcK Database
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.
Coffea canephora
Colocasia esculenta
Columba
Columbidae
Corchorus olitorius
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
Corylus
Corylus avellana
Crateva religiosa
Crocus sativus
Cucumis melo
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maxima
Cucurbita moschata
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longa
Cydonia oblonga
Cymbopogon citratus
Cymodocea rotundataKNApSAcK Database
Cymodocea serrulataKNApSAcK Database
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Diospyros
Diospyros kaki
Diospyros virginiana
Dromaius novaehollandiae
Durio zibethinus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elaeis
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomum
Empetrum nigrum
Equus caballus
Eragrostis tef
Eriobotrya japonica
Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa
Eucalyptus grandisKNApSAcK Database
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Eutrema japonicum
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fagopyrum tataricum
Fagus
Feijoa sellowiana
Ficus carica
Flammulina velutipes
Foeniculum vulgareKNApSAcK Database
Fragaria x ananassa
Fumaria capreolataPlant
Fumaria officinalisPlant
Fumaria schleicheriPlant
Fumaria vaillantiiPlant
Gallus gallus
Garcinia mangostana
Gaylussacia baccata
Gentiana spp.KNApSAcK Database
Ginkgo biloba
Glycine maxFooDB
Gossypium
Grifola frondosa
Halodule uninervisKNApSAcK Database
Halodule wrightiiKNApSAcK Database
Halophila hawaiianaKNApSAcK Database
Hedysarum alpinum
Helianthus annuus L.
Helianthus tuberosusKNApSAcK Database
Hibiscus sabbariffa
Hippophae rhamnoides
Hordeum vulgare
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verum
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea batatas
Juglans
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra L.
Juglans regia
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativa
Lagenaria siceraria
Lagopus muta
Lathyrus sativus
Laurus nobilis L.
Lens culinaris
Lentinus edodes
Lepidium sativum
Leporidae
Leptolaena diospyroideaKNApSAcK Database
Leptolaena paucifloraKNApSAcK Database
Lepus timidus
Levisticum officinale
Linum usitatissimum
Litchi chinensis
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus
Lupinus albus
Macadamia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Malpighia emarginata
Malus
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Medicago sativa
Melanitta fusca
Meleagris gallopavo
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
Mentha
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperita
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Momordica charantiaFooDB
Morchellaceae
Morella rubra
Moringa oleiferaPlant
Moringa peregrinaPlant
Moringa stenopetalaPlant
Morus
Morus nigra
Musa acuminata
Musa x paradisiaca
Myrica
Myristica fragransFooDB
Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nephelium lappaceum
Numida meleagris
Nuphar lutea
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Odocoileus
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaKNApSAcK Database
Opuntia
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia macrorhiza
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgare
Origanum X majoricum
Oryctolagus
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativa
Ovis aries
Pachyrhizus erosus
Panax ginseng
Pangium edule
Panicum miliaceum
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
Pediomelum esculentum
Perideridia oregana
Persea americana
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgaris
Phasianidae
Phasianus colchicus
Phoenix dactylifera
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllospadix scouleriKNApSAcK Database
Phyllospadix serrulatusKNApSAcK Database
Phyllostachys edulis
Physalis
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
Pinus
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum L.
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativumFooDB
Plantago majorKNApSAcK Database
Pleurotus ostreatus
Polygonum alpinum
Portulaca oleracea
Posidonia oceanicaKNApSAcK Database
Pouteria sapota
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus aviumKNApSAcK Database
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasus
Prunus domestica
Prunus dulcis
Prunus persica
Prunus persica var. nucipersica
Prunus persica var. persica
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Pterocarpus santalinusKNApSAcK Database
Punica granatum
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus
Raphanus sativusKNApSAcK Database
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rhamnus dispermaKNApSAcK Database
Rhaponticum carthamoidesKNApSAcK Database
Rheum rhabarbarum
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Rosa
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilis
Rumex
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix pulchra
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra L.
Sarcolaeana multiflora-
Satureja hortensis L.
Satureja montana
Scorzonera hispanica
Scrophularia frutescensPlant
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicumKNApSAcK Database
Sesbania bispinosa
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium
Solanum lycopersicum
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongena
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosum
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolor
Spinacia oleracea
Struthio camelus
Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa domestica
Syringodium filiformeKNApSAcK Database
Syringodium isoetifoliumKNApSAcK Database
Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tamarindus indica
Taraxacum officinale
Taxus baccataKNApSAcK Database
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thalassia hemprichiiKNApSAcK Database
Thalassia testudinumKNApSAcK Database
Thalassodendron ciliatumKNApSAcK Database
Thelesperma
Theobroma cacaoFooDB
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trifolium pratensePlant
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Triticum
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durum
Triticum spelta
Triticum turanicum
Typha angustifolia
Vaccinium
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Vanilla
Verbena officinalis
Veronica officinalisPlant
Veronica orchideaPlant
Veronica teucriumPlant
Viburnum edule
Vicia faba
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularis
Vigna mungo
Vigna radiata
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
Vitis
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis viniferaKNApSAcK Database
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Zea mays L.
Zingiber officinale
Zizania
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Zostera capricorniKNApSAcK Database
Zostera marinaKNApSAcK Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Penicillium citrinum F5KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are compounds containing a hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxyl and a hydroxyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentHydroxybenzoic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dihydroxybenzoic acid
  • Salicylic acid
  • Salicylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzoyl
  • Hydroquinone
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point199.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point406.00 to 407.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility5 mg/mL at 5 °CNot Available
LogP1.74Sangster, J. (1993). LOGKOW- a Databank of Evaluated Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients. Sangster Research Laboratories, Montreal.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility12.3 g/LALOGPS
logP1.23ALOGPS
logP1.67ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity37.28 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000152
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound ID416
FoodDB IDFDB000844
KNApSAcK IDC00002648
Chemspider ID3350
KEGG Compound IDC00628
BioCyc IDCPD-633
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGentisic_acid
METLIN ID618
PubChem Compound3469
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17189
Good Scents IDrw1165361
References
General References
  1. Ohsako M, Matsumoto Y, Goto S: Transport of aspirin and its metabolites through human erythrocyte membrane. Biol Pharm Bull. 1993 Feb;16(2):154-7. [PubMed:8364451 ]
  2. Almaas R, Rootwelt T, Oyasaeter S, Saugstad OD: Ascorbic acid enhances hydroxyl radical formation in iron-fortified infant cereals and infant formulas. Eur J Pediatr. 1997 Jun;156(6):488-92. [PubMed:9208249 ]
  3. Verhaeghe BJ, Lefevere MF, De Leenheer AP: Solid-phase extraction with strong anion-exchange columns for selective isolation and concentration of urinary organic acids. Clin Chem. 1988 Jun;34(6):1077-83. [PubMed:3378323 ]
  4. Palumbo G, Carlucci G, Mazzeo P, Frieri G, Pimpo MT, Fanini D: Simultaneous determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid, acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid in endoscopic intestinal biopsy samples in humans by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1995 Dec;14(1-2):175-80. [PubMed:8833980 ]
  5. Grootveld M, Halliwell B: Aromatic hydroxylation as a potential measure of hydroxyl-radical formation in vivo. Identification of hydroxylated derivatives of salicylate in human body fluids. Biochem J. 1986 Jul 15;237(2):499-504. [PubMed:3026319 ]
  6. Peleg H, Noble AC: Perceptual properties of benzoic acid derivatives. Chem Senses. 1995 Aug;20(4):393-400. [PubMed:8590024 ]
  7. Buskin JN, Upton RA, Williams RL: Improved liquid-chromatography of aspirin, salicylate, and salicyluric acid in plasma, with a modification for determining aspirin metabolites in urine. Clin Chem. 1982 May;28(5):1200-3. [PubMed:7074905 ]
  8. Liu JH, Smith PC: Direct analysis of salicylic acid, salicyl acyl glucuronide, salicyluric acid and gentisic acid in human plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1996 Jan 12;675(1):61-70. [PubMed:8634769 ]
  9. Coudray C, Talla M, Martin S, Fatome M, Favier A: High-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical determination of salicylate hydroxylation products as an in vivo marker of oxidative stress. Anal Biochem. 1995 May 1;227(1):101-11. [PubMed:7668368 ]
  10. Bochner F, Graham GG, Cham BE, Imhoff DM, Haavisto TM: Salicylate metabolite kinetics after several salicylates. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981 Aug;30(2):266-75. [PubMed:7249509 ]
  11. Cham BE, Bochner F, Imhoff DM, Johns D, Rowland M: Simultaneous liquid-chromatographic quantitation of salicylic acid, salicyluric acid, and gentisic acid in urine. Clin Chem. 1980 Jan;26(1):111-4. [PubMed:7356541 ]
  12. Abedi F, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H: A review on gentisic acid as a plant derived phenolic acid and metabolite of aspirin: Comprehensive pharmacology, toxicology, and some pharmaceutical aspects. Phytother Res. 2020 Apr;34(4):729-741. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6573. Epub 2019 Dec 11. [PubMed:31825145 ]
  13. Fayos J, Belles JM, Lopez-Gresa MP, Primo J, Conejero V: Induction of gentisic acid 5-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside in tomato and cucumber plants infected by different pathogens. Phytochemistry. 2006 Jan;67(2):142-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.10.014. [PubMed:16321412 ]