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Record Information
Created at2006-05-22 14:17:36 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 20:22:29 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000015
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameItaconic acid
DescriptionItaconic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that is methacrylic acid in which one of the methyl hydrogens is substituted by a carboxylic acid group. It has a role as a fungal metabolite and a human metabolite. It is a dicarboxylic acid and an olefinic compound. It derives from a succinic acid. It is a conjugate acid of an itaconate(2-). This dicarboxylic acid is a white solid that is soluble in water, ethanol, and acetone. Historically, itaconic acid was obtained by the distillation of citric acid, but currently it is produced by fermentation. The name itaconic acid was devised as an anagram of aconitic acid, another derivative of citric acid. Itaconic acid, also known as itaconate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as branched fatty acids. These are fatty acids containing a branched chain. Itaconic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble in water, and relatively neutral. Since the 1960s, it is produced industrially by the fermentation of carbohydrates such as glucose or molasses using fungi such as Aspergillus itaconicus or Aspergillus terreus. For A. Terreus the itaconate pathway is mostly elucidated. The generally accepted route for itaconate is via glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and a decarboxylation of cis-aconitate to itaconate via cis-aconitate-decarboxylase. The smut fungus Ustilago maydis uses an alternative route. Cis-aconitate is converted to the thermodynamically favoured trans-aconitate via aconitate-Δ-isomerase (Adi1). Trans-Aconitate is further decarboxylated to itaconate by trans-aconitate-decarboxylase (Tad1). Itaconic acid is also produced in cells of macrophage lineage. It was shown that itaconate is a covalent inhibitor of the enzyme isocitrate lyase in vitro. As such, itaconate may possess antibacterial activities against bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase (such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). It is also sythesized in the laboratory, where dry distillation of citric acid affords itaconic anhydride, which undergoes hydrolysis to itaconic acid.
2-Methylenesuccinic acidChEBI
2-Propene-1,2-dicarboxylic acidChEBI
Methylenebutanedioic acidChEBI
Methylenesuccinic acidChEBI
Propylenedicarboxylic acidChEBI
Itaconic acid, copper saltMeSH, HMDB
Itaconic acid, disodium saltMeSH, HMDB
Itaconic acid, calcium saltMeSH, HMDB
Itaconic acid, sodium saltMeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H6O4
Average Mass130.0987 Da
Monoisotopic Mass130.02661 Da
IUPAC Name2-methylidenebutanedioic acid
Traditional Nameitaconic acid
CAS Registry Number97-65-4
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 90 MHz, D2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25.16 MHz, D2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 1H] 2D NMR Spectrum (experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Sebertia acuminataKNApSAcK Database
Solanum tuberosumKNApSAcK Database
Triticum aestivumKNApSAcK Database
Vicia fabaKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as branched fatty acids. These are fatty acids containing a branched chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentBranched fatty acids
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point175 °CNot Available
Boiling Point268.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility76.8 mg/mL at 20 °CNot Available
LogP-0.075 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility63 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.65ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity27.91 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.06 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
External Links
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012645
KNApSAcK IDC00033964
Chemspider ID789
KEGG Compound IDC00490
BiGG ID35130
Wikipedia LinkItaconic_acid
PubChem Compound811
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30838
Good Scents IDrw1252991
General References
  1. Karadag E, Saraydin D, Cetinkaya S, Guven O: In vitro swelling studies and preliminary biocompatibility evaluation of acrylamide-based hydrogels. Biomaterials. 1996 Jan;17(1):67-70. [PubMed:8962950 ]
  2. Becker J, Lange A, Fabarius J, Wittmann C: Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015 Dec;36:168-75. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2015.08.022. Epub 2015 Sep 8. [PubMed:26360870 ]
  3. Scano P, Murgia A, Pirisi FM, Caboni P: A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach for the characterization of goat milk compared with cow milk. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Oct;97(10):6057-66. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8247. Epub 2014 Aug 6. [PubMed:25108860 ]
  4. Qian L, Zhao A, Zhang Y, Chen T, Zeisel SH, Jia W, Cai W: Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Dec 17;17(12). pii: ijms17122128. doi: 10.3390/ijms17122128. [PubMed:27999311 ]
  5. Kanamasa S, Dwiarti L, Okabe M, Park EY: Cloning and functional characterization of the cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (CAD) gene from Aspergillus terreus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008 Aug;80(2):223-9. doi: 10.1007/s00253-008-1523-1. Epub 2008 Jun 27. [PubMed:18584171 ]