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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 20:22:28 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000014
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameTrehalose
DescriptionTrehalose, also known as mycose, is a 1-alpha (disaccharide) sugar found extensively but not abundantly in nature. It is thought to be implicated in anhydrobiosis - the ability of plants and animals to withstand prolonged periods of desiccation. The sugar is thought to form a gel phase as cells dehydrate, which prevents disruption of internal cell organelles by effectively splinting them in position. Rehydration then allows normal cellular activity to be resumed without the major, generally lethal damage that would normally follow a dehydration/reyhdration cycle. Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar formed from two glucose units joined by a 1-1 alpha bond giving it the name of alpha-D-glucopyranoglucopyranosyl-1,1-alpha-D-glucopyranoside. The bonding makes trehalose very resistant to acid hydrolysis, and therefore stable in solution at high temperatures even under acidic conditions. The bonding also keeps non-reducing sugars in closed-ring form, such that the aldehyde or ketone end-groups do not bind to the lysine or arginine residues of proteins (a process called glycation). The enzyme trehalase, present but not abundant in most people, breaks it into two glucose molecules, which can then be readily absorbed in the gut. Trehalose is an important components of insects circulating fluid. It acts as a storage form of insect circulating fluid and it is important in respiration. Trehalose has also been found to be a metabolite of Burkholderia, Escherichia and Propionibacterium (PMID: 12105274 ; PMID: 25479689 ) (Krishikosh.Egranth.Ac.In/bitstream/1/84382/1/88571%20P-1257.Pdf).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(GLC)2ChEBI
alpha,Alpha'-trehaloseChEBI
alpha-D-GLCP-(11)-alpha-D-GLCPChEBI
alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosideChEBI
alpha-D-TrehaloseChEBI
alpha-TrehaloseChEBI
D-(+)-TrehaloseChEBI
Ergot sugarChEBI
MycoseChEBI
a,Alpha'-trehaloseGenerator
Α,alpha'-trehaloseGenerator
a-D-GLCP-(11)-a-D-GLCPGenerator
Α-D-GLCP-(11)-α-D-GLCPGenerator
a-D-Glucopyranosyl-a-D-glucopyranosideGenerator
Α-D-glucopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosideGenerator
a-D-TrehaloseGenerator
Α-D-trehaloseGenerator
a-TrehaloseGenerator
Α-trehaloseGenerator
alpha,alpha-TrehaloseHMDB
D-Trehalose-anhydrousHMDB
delta-Trehalose-anhydrousHMDB
D-TrehaloseHMDB
Natural trehaloseHMDB
O-D-Glucopyranosyl-(1→1)-D-glucopyranosideHMDB
alpha,Alpha'-D-trehaloseHMDB
alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl alpha-D-glucopyranosideHMDB
Α,α'-D-trehaloseHMDB
Α,α-trehaloseHMDB
Α,α’-D-trehaloseHMDB
Α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranosideHMDB
TrehaloseHMDB
Chemical FormulaC12H22O11
Average Mass342.2965 Da
Monoisotopic Mass342.11621 Da
IUPAC Name(2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-{[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxane-3,4,5-triol
Traditional Nameα,α'-trehalose
CAS Registry Number99-20-7
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[C@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-3-5(15)7(17)9(19)11(21-3)23-12-10(20)8(18)6(16)4(2-14)22-12/h3-20H,1-2H2/t3-,4-,5-,6-,7+,8+,9-,10-,11-,12-/m1/s1
InChI KeyHDTRYLNUVZCQOY-LIZSDCNHSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-07-19View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anas platyrhynchosFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anser anserFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaKNApSAcK Database
BacteriaNULL
      Not Available
Basella albaFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Bison bisonFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
Bos taurus X Bison bisonFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea L. ssp. BotrytisKNApSAcK Database
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Bubalus bubalisFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Callosobruchus maculatusLOTUS Database
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capra aegagrus hircusFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
CervidaeFooDB
Cervus canadensisFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Cora pavoniaLOTUS Database
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma domesticaKNApSAcK Database
Curcuma longaPlant
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Daphnia pulexLOTUS Database
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Dromaius novaehollandiaeFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
Equus caballusFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
FungiNULL
      Not Available
Gallus gallusFooDB
Ganoderma applanatumLOTUS Database
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Gypsophila patriniiLOTUS Database
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
Laetiporus sulphureusLOTUS Database
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Lotus corniculatusLOTUS Database
Lotus creticusLOTUS Database
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
Lyophyllum decastesLOTUS Database
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaFooDB
Melanitta fuscaFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
MetazoaNULL
      Not Available
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
Mycoplasma gallisepticumLOTUS Database
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
Myrothamnus flabellifoliaLOTUS Database
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
Numida meleagrisFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
OdocoileusFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
OryctolagusFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
PhasianidaeFooDB
Phasianus colchicusFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
Pogostemon cablinLOTUS Database
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Protohermes grandisLOTUS Database
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumKNApSAcK Database
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psilocybe argentipesLOTUS Database
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Selaginella involvens-
Selaginella lepidophylla-
Selaginella nothohybridaLOTUS Database
Selaginella tamariscina-
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumPlant
Solanum lycopersicum L.KNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorPlant
Sorghum vulgareKNApSAcK Database
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Sporobolus stapfianusKNApSAcK Database
Streptomyces coelicolorLOTUS Database
Struthio camelusFooDB
Sus scrofaFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
ThelespermaFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiataFooDB
Vigna umbellataFooDB
Vigna unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindricaFooDB
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalisFooDB
VitisFooDB
Vitis aestivalisFooDB
Vitis labruscaFooDB
Vitis rotundifoliaFooDB
Vitis vinifera L.FooDB
Xanthosoma sagittifoliumFooDB
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinaleFooDB
ZizaniaFooDB
Zizania aquaticaFooDB
Ziziphus zizyphusFooDB
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Agaricus campestrisKNApSAcK Database
Amanita muscariaKNApSAcK Database
Bombyx moriKNApSAcK Database
Lentinus edodesKNApSAcK Database
Phellinus igniariusKNApSAcK Database
Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentO-glycosyl compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Disaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point203 °Chttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trehalose
Boiling Point586.70 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility0.69 mg/mL at 20 °CNot Available
LogP-1.650 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility592 g/LALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-4.7ChemAxon
logS0.24ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.91ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area189.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity68.34 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability31.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000975
DrugBank IDDB12310
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB031220
KNApSAcK IDC00001152
Chemspider ID7149
KEGG Compound IDC01083
BioCyc IDTREHALOSE
BiGG ID36774
Wikipedia LinkTrehalose
METLIN ID5913
PubChem Compound7427
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16551
Good Scents IDrw1701121
References
General References
  1. Potier M, Dallaire L, Melancon SB: Occurrence and properties of fetal intestinal glycosidases (disaccharidases) in human amniotic fluid. Biol Neonate. 1975;27(3-4):141-52. [PubMed:241430 ]
  2. Citron DM, Baron EJ, Finegold SM, Goldstein EJ: Short prereduced anaerobically sterilized (PRAS) biochemical scheme for identification of clinical isolates of bile-resistant Bacteroides species. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Oct;28(10):2220-3. [PubMed:2229345 ]
  3. Yoshioka S, Aso Y: A quantitative assessment of the significance of molecular mobility as a determinant for the stability of lyophilized insulin formulations. Pharm Res. 2005 Aug;22(8):1358-64. Epub 2005 Aug 3. [PubMed:16078146 ]
  4. Guo N, Puhlev I, Brown DR, Mansbridge J, Levine F: Trehalose expression confers desiccation tolerance on human cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2000 Feb;18(2):168-71. [PubMed:10657122 ]
  5. Nie Y, de Pablo JJ, Palecek SP: Platelet cryopreservation using a trehalose and phosphate formulation. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005 Oct 5;92(1):79-90. [PubMed:15937943 ]
  6. Fujita Y, Naka T, Doi T, Yano I: Direct molecular mass determination of trehalose monomycolate from 11 species of mycobacteria by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Microbiology. 2005 May;151(Pt 5):1443-52. [PubMed:15870454 ]
  7. Lu FQ, Liu JH, Ouyang XL, Li XJ, Zhou J, Zhuang Y: [Process of human platelets loaded with rehalose before lyophilization]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2006 Feb;14(1):156-61. [PubMed:16584614 ]
  8. Shirkhanzadeh M: Microneedles coated with porous calcium phosphate ceramics: effective vehicles for transdermal delivery of solid trehalose. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2005 Jan;16(1):37-45. [PubMed:15754142 ]
  9. Eroglu A, Russo MJ, Bieganski R, Fowler A, Cheley S, Bayley H, Toner M: Intracellular trehalose improves the survival of cryopreserved mammalian cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2000 Feb;18(2):163-7. [PubMed:10657121 ]
  10. Arguelles JC, Rodriguez T, Alvarez-Peral FJ: Trehalose hydrolysis is not required for human serum-induced dimorphic transition in Candida albicans: evidence from a tps1/tps1 mutant deficient in trehalose synthesis. Res Microbiol. 1999 Oct;150(8):521-9. [PubMed:10577485 ]
  11. Corning BF, Murphy JC, Fox JG: Group G streptococcal lymphadenitis in rats. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Dec;29(12):2720-3. [PubMed:1757539 ]
  12. Davies JE, Sarkar S, Rubinsztein DC: Trehalose reduces aggregate formation and delays pathology in a transgenic mouse model of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Jan 1;15(1):23-31. Epub 2005 Nov 25. [PubMed:16311254 ]
  13. Ma X, Jamil K, Macrae TH, Clegg JS, Russell JM, Villeneuve TS, Euloth M, Sun Y, Crowe JH, Tablin F, Oliver AE: A small stress protein acts synergistically with trehalose to confer desiccation tolerance on mammalian cells. Cryobiology. 2005 Aug;51(1):15-28. [PubMed:15963489 ]
  14. Alcoba-Florez J, Mendez-Alvarez S, Cano J, Guarro J, Perez-Roth E, del Pilar Arevalo M: Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Candida nivariensis sp. nov., a possible new opportunistic fungus. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Aug;43(8):4107-11. [PubMed:16081957 ]
  15. Chang L, Shepherd D, Sun J, Ouellette D, Grant KL, Tang XC, Pikal MJ: Mechanism of protein stabilization by sugars during freeze-drying and storage: native structure preservation, specific interaction, and/or immobilization in a glassy matrix? J Pharm Sci. 2005 Jul;94(7):1427-44. [PubMed:15920775 ]
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