Np mrd loader

You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on NP-MRD.
Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 20:22:28 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000014
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameTrehalose
DescriptionTrehalose, also known as mycose, is a 1-alpha (disaccharide) sugar found extensively but not abundantly in nature. It is thought to be implicated in anhydrobiosis - the ability of plants and animals to withstand prolonged periods of desiccation. The sugar is thought to form a gel phase as cells dehydrate, which prevents disruption of internal cell organelles by effectively splinting them in position. Rehydration then allows normal cellular activity to be resumed without the major, generally lethal damage that would normally follow a dehydration/reyhdration cycle. Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar formed from two glucose units joined by a 1-1 alpha bond giving it the name of alpha-D-glucopyranoglucopyranosyl-1,1-alpha-D-glucopyranoside. The bonding makes trehalose very resistant to acid hydrolysis, and therefore stable in solution at high temperatures even under acidic conditions. The bonding also keeps non-reducing sugars in closed-ring form, such that the aldehyde or ketone end-groups do not bind to the lysine or arginine residues of proteins (a process called glycation). The enzyme trehalase, present but not abundant in most people, breaks it into two glucose molecules, which can then be readily absorbed in the gut. Trehalose is an important components of insects circulating fluid. It acts as a storage form of insect circulating fluid and it is important in respiration. Trehalose has also been found to be a metabolite of Burkholderia, Escherichia and Propionibacterium (PMID: 12105274 ; PMID: 25479689 ) (Krishikosh.Egranth.Ac.In/bitstream/1/84382/1/88571%20P-1257.Pdf).
Ergot sugarChEBI
Natural trehaloseHMDB
alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl alpha-D-glucopyranosideHMDB
Α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranosideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC12H22O11
Average Mass342.2965 Da
Monoisotopic Mass342.11621 Da
IUPAC Name(2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-{[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxane-3,4,5-triol
Traditional Nameα,α'-trehalose
CAS Registry Number99-20-7
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-07-19View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Averrhoa carambolaKNApSAcK Database
      Not Available
Brassica oleracea L. ssp. BotrytisKNApSAcK Database
Curcuma domesticaKNApSAcK Database
      Not Available
      Not Available
Prunus aviumKNApSAcK Database
Solanum lycopersicum L.KNApSAcK Database
Sorghum vulgareKNApSAcK Database
Sporobolus stapfianusKNApSAcK Database
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Agaricus campestrisKNApSAcK Database
Amanita muscariaKNApSAcK Database
Bombyx moriKNApSAcK Database
Lentinus edodesKNApSAcK Database
Phellinus igniariusKNApSAcK Database
Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentO-glycosyl compounds
Alternative Parents
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Disaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point203 °C
Boiling Point586.70 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility0.69 mg/mL at 20 °CNot Available
LogP-1.650 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility592 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.91ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area189.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity68.34 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability31.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB12310
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB031220
KNApSAcK IDC00001152
Chemspider ID7149
KEGG Compound IDC01083
BiGG ID36774
Wikipedia LinkTrehalose
PubChem Compound7427
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16551
Good Scents IDrw1701121
General References
  1. Potier M, Dallaire L, Melancon SB: Occurrence and properties of fetal intestinal glycosidases (disaccharidases) in human amniotic fluid. Biol Neonate. 1975;27(3-4):141-52. [PubMed:241430 ]
  2. Citron DM, Baron EJ, Finegold SM, Goldstein EJ: Short prereduced anaerobically sterilized (PRAS) biochemical scheme for identification of clinical isolates of bile-resistant Bacteroides species. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Oct;28(10):2220-3. [PubMed:2229345 ]
  3. Yoshioka S, Aso Y: A quantitative assessment of the significance of molecular mobility as a determinant for the stability of lyophilized insulin formulations. Pharm Res. 2005 Aug;22(8):1358-64. Epub 2005 Aug 3. [PubMed:16078146 ]
  4. Guo N, Puhlev I, Brown DR, Mansbridge J, Levine F: Trehalose expression confers desiccation tolerance on human cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2000 Feb;18(2):168-71. [PubMed:10657122 ]
  5. Nie Y, de Pablo JJ, Palecek SP: Platelet cryopreservation using a trehalose and phosphate formulation. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005 Oct 5;92(1):79-90. [PubMed:15937943 ]
  6. Fujita Y, Naka T, Doi T, Yano I: Direct molecular mass determination of trehalose monomycolate from 11 species of mycobacteria by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Microbiology. 2005 May;151(Pt 5):1443-52. [PubMed:15870454 ]
  7. Lu FQ, Liu JH, Ouyang XL, Li XJ, Zhou J, Zhuang Y: [Process of human platelets loaded with rehalose before lyophilization]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2006 Feb;14(1):156-61. [PubMed:16584614 ]
  8. Shirkhanzadeh M: Microneedles coated with porous calcium phosphate ceramics: effective vehicles for transdermal delivery of solid trehalose. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2005 Jan;16(1):37-45. [PubMed:15754142 ]
  9. Eroglu A, Russo MJ, Bieganski R, Fowler A, Cheley S, Bayley H, Toner M: Intracellular trehalose improves the survival of cryopreserved mammalian cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2000 Feb;18(2):163-7. [PubMed:10657121 ]
  10. Arguelles JC, Rodriguez T, Alvarez-Peral FJ: Trehalose hydrolysis is not required for human serum-induced dimorphic transition in Candida albicans: evidence from a tps1/tps1 mutant deficient in trehalose synthesis. Res Microbiol. 1999 Oct;150(8):521-9. [PubMed:10577485 ]
  11. Corning BF, Murphy JC, Fox JG: Group G streptococcal lymphadenitis in rats. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Dec;29(12):2720-3. [PubMed:1757539 ]
  12. Davies JE, Sarkar S, Rubinsztein DC: Trehalose reduces aggregate formation and delays pathology in a transgenic mouse model of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Jan 1;15(1):23-31. Epub 2005 Nov 25. [PubMed:16311254 ]
  13. Ma X, Jamil K, Macrae TH, Clegg JS, Russell JM, Villeneuve TS, Euloth M, Sun Y, Crowe JH, Tablin F, Oliver AE: A small stress protein acts synergistically with trehalose to confer desiccation tolerance on mammalian cells. Cryobiology. 2005 Aug;51(1):15-28. [PubMed:15963489 ]
  14. Alcoba-Florez J, Mendez-Alvarez S, Cano J, Guarro J, Perez-Roth E, del Pilar Arevalo M: Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Candida nivariensis sp. nov., a possible new opportunistic fungus. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Aug;43(8):4107-11. [PubMed:16081957 ]
  15. Chang L, Shepherd D, Sun J, Ouellette D, Grant KL, Tang XC, Pikal MJ: Mechanism of protein stabilization by sugars during freeze-drying and storage: native structure preservation, specific interaction, and/or immobilization in a glassy matrix? J Pharm Sci. 2005 Jul;94(7):1427-44. [PubMed:15920775 ]
  16. Sasnoor LM, Kale VP, Limaye LS: A combination of catalase and trehalose as additives to conventional freezing medium results in improved cryoprotection of human hematopoietic cells with reference to in vitro migration and adhesion properties. Transfusion. 2005 Apr;45(4):622-33. [PubMed:15819685 ]
  17. Alvarez-Peral FJ, Arguelles JC: Changes in external trehalase activity during human serum-induced dimorphic transition in Candida albicans. Res Microbiol. 2000 Dec;151(10):837-43. [PubMed:11191809 ]
  18. Berlutti F, Thaller MC, Dainelli B, Pezzi R: T-mod pathway, a reduced sequence for identification of gram-negative urinary tract pathogens. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Jul;27(7):1646-9. [PubMed:2768451 ]
  19. Kandror O, DeLeon A, Goldberg AL: Trehalose synthesis is induced upon exposure of Escherichia coli to cold and is essential for viability at low temperatures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23;99(15):9727-32. doi: 10.1073/pnas.142314099. Epub 2002 Jul 8. [PubMed:12105274 ]
  20. Habe H, Sato S, Morita T, Fukuoka T, Kirimura K, Kitamoto D: Bacterial production of short-chain organic acids and trehalose from levulinic acid: a potential cellulose-derived building block as a feedstock for microbial production. Bioresour Technol. 2015 Feb;177:381-6. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.048. Epub 2014 Nov 18. [PubMed:25479689 ]