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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2022-01-13 21:32:53 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000012
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameAllantoin
DescriptionAllantoin is a diureide of glyoxylic acid with the chemical formula C4H6N4O3. It is also called 5-ureidohydantoin or glyoxyldiureide. It is a product of the oxidation of uric acid. It is also a product of purine metabolism in most mammals except for higher apes, and it is present in their urine. In humans, uric acid is excreted instead of allantoin. The presence of allantoin in the urine can be an indication of microbial overgrowth or it can be created via non-enzymatic means through high levels of reactive oxygen species. In this regard, allantoin is sometimes used as a marker of oxidative stress. Allantoin can be isolated from cow urine or as a botanical extract of the comfrey plant. It has long been used for its healing, soothing, and anti-irritating properties. Allantoin helps to heal wounds and skin irritations and stimulates the growth of healthy tissue. Allantoin can be found in anti-acne products, sun care products, and clarifying lotions because of its ability to help heal minor wounds and promote healthy skin. Allantoin is frequently present in toothpaste, mouthwash, and other oral hygiene products as well as in shampoos, lipsticks, various cosmetic lotions and creams, and other cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)ureaChEBI
2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl-ureaChEBI
4-Ureido-2,5-imidazolidinedioneChEBI
5-Ureido-2,4-imidazolidindioneChEBI
5-UreidohydantoinChEBI
GlyoxyldiureideChEBI
N-(2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)ureaChEBI
(S)-AllantoinHMDB
5-Ureido-hydantoinHMDB
5-UreidohydrantoinHMDB
AlantanHMDB
AllantolHMDB
AlloxantinHMDB
AVC/DienestrolcreamHMDB
CordianineHMDB
D00121HMDB
Fancol toinHMDB
GlyoxyldiureidHMDB
Glyoxylic diureideHMDB
PsoralonHMDB
SebicalHMDB
SeptalanHMDB
Sween brand OF allantoinHMDB
Herpecin-LHMDB
HerpecinLHMDB
Reed and carnrick brand OF allantoinHMDB
Woun'dresHMDB
Allantoin sween brandHMDB
Campbell brand OF allantoinHMDB
Allantoin campbell brandHMDB
Herpecin LHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H6N4O3
Average Mass158.1154 Da
Monoisotopic Mass158.04399 Da
IUPAC Name(2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)urea
Traditional Nameallantoin
CAS Registry Number97-59-6
SMILES
NC(=O)NC1NC(=O)NC1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H6N4O3/c5-3(10)6-1-2(9)8-4(11)7-1/h1H,(H3,5,6,10)(H2,7,8,9,11)
InChI KeyPOJWUDADGALRAB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-07-25View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-11-04View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Varshavi.d262021-11-04View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, simulated)Varshavi.d262021-10-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Varshavi.d262021-10-29View Spectrum
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentus
Acanthopanax giraldiiKNApSAcK Database
Actinidia chinensis
Agaricus bisporus
Agave
Allium ampeloprasum
Allium ascalonicum
Allium cepa
Allium cepa L.
Allium fistulosum
Allium sativum
Allium schoenoprasum
Allium tuberosum
Allium tuberosum Rottl.ex Spreng.KNApSAcK Database
Aloysia triphylla
Amaranthus
Amelanchier alnifolia
Anacardium occidentale
Ananas comosus
Anas platyrhynchos
Anatidae
Anethum graveolens
Angelica keiskei
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Anser anser
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolens
Apium graveolens var. dulce
Apium graveolens var. rapaceum
Apium graveolens var. secalinum
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaea
Arctium lappa
Aristolochia heterophylla HemslKNApSAcK Database
Aristolochia pubescensKNApSAcK Database
Armoracia rusticana
Artemisia dracunculus
Artemisia vulgaris
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asparagus officinalis
Attalea speciosa
Auricularia auricula-judae
Auricularia polytricha
Auxemma oncocalyxKNApSAcK Database
Avena sativa L.
Averrhoa carambola
Basella alba
Benincasa hispida
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla
Bison bison
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurus
Bos taurus X Bison bison
Brassica alboglabra
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica napus var. napus
Brassica oleracea
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Brassica oleracea var. italica
Brassica oleracea var. sabauda
Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis
Brassica rapa var. pekinensis
Brassica rapa var. rapa
Brassica ruvo
Brosimum alicastrum
Bubalus bubalis
Byrsonima crassifolia
Cajanus cajan
Canarium ovatum
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibarius
Capparis spinosa
Capra aegagrus hircus
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum annuum L.
Capsicum annuum var. annuum
Capsicum chinense
Capsicum pubescens
Carica papaya L.
Carissa macrocarpa
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya
Carya illinoinensis
Castanea
Castanea crenata
Castanea mollissima
Castanea sativa
Ceratonia siliqua
Cervidae
Cervus canadensis
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamerion angustifolium
Chenopodium album
Chenopodium quinoa
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybus
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Cirsium
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus latifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus maxima
Citrus paradisi
Citrus reticulata
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)
Cocos nucifera
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephora
Colocasia esculenta
Columba
Columbidae
Corchorus olitorius
Cordia oncocalyxPlant
Coriandrum sativum L.
Corylus
Corylus avellana
Crateva religiosa
Crocus sativus
Cucumis melo
Cucumis metuliferus
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maxima
Cucurbita moschata
Cuminum cyminum
Curcuma longa
Cydonia oblonga
Cymbopogon citratus
Cynara cardunculus
Cynara scolymus
Daucus carota
Daucus carota ssp. sativus
Dimocarpus longan
Dioscorea
Dioscorea bulbiferaPlant
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Diospyros
Diospyros kaki
Diospyros virginiana
Dromaius novaehollandiae
Durio zibethinus
Dysphania ambrosioides
Elaeis
Eleocharis dulcis
Elettaria cardamomum
Empetrum nigrum
Equus caballus
Eragrostis tef
Eriobotrya japonica
Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa
Eugenia javanica
Eugenia uniflora
Eutrema japonicum
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fagopyrum tataricum
Fagus
Feijoa sellowiana
Ficus carica
Flammulina velutipes
Foeniculum vulgare
Fragaria x ananassa
Gallus gallus
Garcinia mangostana
Gaylussacia baccata
Ginkgo biloba
Glycine maxKNApSAcK Database
Gossypium
Grifola frondosa
Gypsophila vaccariaPlant
Hedysarum alpinum
Helianthus annuus L.
Helianthus tuberosus
Hibiscus sabbariffa
Hippophae rhamnoides
Hordeum vulgare
Hyssopus officinalis L.
Illicium verum
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea batatas
Juglans
Juglans ailanthifolia
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra L.
Juglans regia
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativa
Lagenaria siceraria
Lagopus muta
Lathyrus sativus
Laurus nobilis L.
Lens culinaris
Lentinus edodes
Lepidium sativum
Leporidae
Lepus timidus
Levisticum officinale
Linum usitatissimum
Litchi chinensis
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus
Lupinus albusFooDB
Macadamia
Macadamia tetraphylla
Malpighia emarginata
Malus
Malus pumila
Mammea americana
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Manilkara zapota
Maranta arundinacea
Matricaria recutita
Matteuccia struthiopteris
Medicago sativa
Melanitta fusca
Meleagris gallopavo
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha
Mentha aquatica
Mentha arvensis
Mentha spicata
Mentha x piperita
Mespilus germanica
Metroxylon sagu
Momordica charantia
Morchellaceae
Morella rubra
Moringa oleifera
Morus
Morus nigra
Musa acuminata
Musa x paradisiaca
Myrica
Myristica fragrans
Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nephelium lappaceum
Numida meleagris
Nuphar lutea
Ocimum basilicum
Odocoileus
Oenothera biennis
Olea europaea
Opuntia
Opuntia cochenillifera
Opuntia macrorhiza
Origanum majorana
Origanum onites
Origanum vulgare
Origanum X majoricum
Oryctolagus
Oryza rufipogon
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis aries
Pachyrhizus erosus
Panax ginseng
Pangium edule
Panicum miliaceum
Passiflora edulis
Pastinaca sativa
Pediomelum esculentum
Perideridia oregana
Persea americana
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus vulgaris
Phasianidae
Phasianus colchicus
Phoenix dactylifera
Photinia melanocarpa
Phyllostachys edulis
Physalis
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculata
Phytolacca americana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisum
Pinus
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum L.
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativumFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatus
Polygonum alpinum
Portulaca oleracea
Pouteria sapota
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus avium
Prunus avium L.
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domestica
Prunus dulcis
Prunus persica
Prunus persica var. nucipersica
Prunus persica var. persica
Prunus tomentosa
Prunus virginiana
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajava
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Punica granatum
Pyrus communis
Pyrus pyrifolia
Quercus
Raphanus sativus
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
Raphanus sativus var. sativus
Rheum rhabarbarum
Rhinacanthus nasutusKNApSAcK Database
Ribes aureum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Robinia pseudoacaciaKNApSAcK Database
Rosa
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus spectabilis
Rumex
Rumex acetosa
Rumex articus
Sagittaria latifolia
Salix pulchra
Salvia elegans
Salvia hispanica
Salvia officinalis
Salvia rosmarinus
Sambucus nigra
Sambucus nigra L.
Satureja hortensis L.
Satureja montana
Scorzonera hispanica
Secale cereale
Sechium edule
Sesamum indicum
Sesbania bispinosa
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium
Solanum lycopersicum
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum
Solanum melongena
Solanum quitoense
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucuparia
Sorghum bicolor
Spinacia oleracea
Struthio camelus
Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa domestica
Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tamarindus indica
Taraxacum officinale
Tetragonia tetragonioides
Thelesperma
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus vulgaris
Tilia cordata
Tilia L.
Tournefortia sarmentosaKNApSAcK Database
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Triticum
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durum
Triticum spelta
Triticum turanicum
Typha angustifolia
Vaccaria segetalisKNApSAcK Database
Vaccinium
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium arboreum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium deliciosum
Vaccinium elliottii
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtilloides
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium ovatum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium parvifolium
Vaccinium reticulatum
Vaccinium stamineum
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Valerianella locusta
Vanilla
Verbena officinalis
Viburnum edule
Vicia faba
Vigna aconitifolia
Vigna angularis
Vigna mungoFooDB
Vigna radiata
Vigna umbellata
Vigna unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica
Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata
Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis
Vitellaria paradoxaFooDB
Vitis
Vitis aestivalis
Vitis labrusca
Vitis rotundifolia
Vitis vinifera L.
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Zea mays L.FooDB
Zingiber officinale
Zizania
Zizania aquatica
Ziziphus zizyphus
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as imidazoles. Imidazoles are compounds containing an imidazole ring, which is an aromatic five-member ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3, and three carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzoles
Sub ClassImidazoles
Direct ParentImidazoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Imidazole
  • Isourea
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carboximidamide
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Imine
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point239 °Chttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allantoin
Boiling Point478 °Chttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allantoin
Water Solubility5.26 mg/mLhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allantoin
LogP-1.523 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.73 g/LALOGPS
logP-2ALOGPS
logP-2.4ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.95ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area113.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity32.02 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.89 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000462
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB031153
KNApSAcK IDC00007468
Chemspider ID199
KEGG Compound IDC01551
BioCyc IDALLANTOIN
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAllantoin
METLIN ID89
PubChem Compound204
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15676
Good Scents IDrw1068121
References
General References
  1. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [PubMed:12829005 ]
  2. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. [PubMed:11805243 ]
  3. Lagendijk J, Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJ: The determination of allantoin, a possible indicator of oxidant status, in human plasma. J Chromatogr Sci. 1995 Apr;33(4):186-93. [PubMed:7738135 ]
  4. Goldman SC, Holcenberg JS, Finklestein JZ, Hutchinson R, Kreissman S, Johnson FL, Tou C, Harvey E, Morris E, Cairo MS: A randomized comparison between rasburicase and allopurinol in children with lymphoma or leukemia at high risk for tumor lysis. Blood. 2001 May 15;97(10):2998-3003. [PubMed:11342423 ]
  5. Kand'ar R, Zakova P, Muzakova V: Monitoring of antioxidant properties of uric acid in humans for a consideration measuring of levels of allantoin in plasma by liquid chromatography. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Mar;365(1-2):249-56. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [PubMed:16194528 ]
  6. Pavitt DV, de Fonseka S, Al-Khalaf N, Cam JM, Reaveley DA: Assay of serum allantoin in humans by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 2002 Apr;318(1-2):63-70. [PubMed:11880113 ]
  7. Alfazema LN, Howells S, Perrett D: Determination of allantoin in biofluids using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 1998 Aug 21;817(1-2):345-52. [PubMed:9764504 ]
  8. Becker BF, Kastenbauer S, Kodel U, Kiesl D, Pfister HW: Urate oxidation in CSF and blood of patients with inflammatory disorders of the nervous system. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004 Oct;23(8-9):1201-4. [PubMed:15571231 ]
  9. Grootveld M, Halliwell B: Measurement of allantoin and uric acid in human body fluids. A potential index of free-radical reactions in vivo? Biochem J. 1987 May 1;243(3):803-8. [PubMed:3663100 ]