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Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-08-19 23:58:50 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0001135
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameBiotin
DescriptionBiotin is an enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. Biotin is also known as vitamin H or B7 or coenzyme R. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk. Biotin has been recognized as an essential nutrient. Our biotin requirement is fulfilled in part through diet, through endogenous reutilization of biotin and perhaps through capture of biotin generated in the intestinal flora. The utilization of biotin for covalent attachment to carboxylases and its reutilization through the release of carboxylase biotin after proteolytic degradation constitutes the 'biotin cycle'. Biotin deficiency is associated with neurological manifestations, skin rash, hair loss and metabolic disturbances that are thought to relate to the various carboxylase deficiencies (metabolic ketoacidosis with lactic acidosis). It has also been suggested that biotin deficiency is associated with protein malnutrition, and that marginal biotin deficiency in pregnant women may be teratogenic. Biotin acts as a carboxyl carrier in carboxylation reactions. There are four biotin-dependent carboxylases in mammals: Those of propionyl-CoA (PCC), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA (MCC), pyruvate (PC) and acetyl-CoA carboxylases (isoforms ACC-1 and ACC-2). All but ACC-2 are mitochondrial enzymes. The biotin moiety is covalently bound to the epsilon amino group of a Lysine residue in each of these carboxylases in a domain 60-80 amino acids long. The domain is structurally similar among carboxylases from bacteria to mammals. There are four biotin-dependent carboxylases in mammals: Those of propionyl-CoA (PCC), 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA (MCC), pyruvate (PC) and acetyl-CoA carboxylases (isoforms ACC-1 and ACC-2). All but ACC-2 are mitochondrial enzymes. The biotin moiety is covalently bound to the epsilon amino group of a Lys residue in each of these carboxylases in a domain 60-80 amino acids long. The domain is structurally similar among carboxylases from bacteria to mammals. Evidence is emerging that biotin participates in processes other than classical carboxylation reactions. Specifically, novel roles for biotin in cell signaling, gene expression, and chromatin structure have been identified in recent years. Human cells accumulate biotin by using both the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter and monocarboxylate transporter 1. These transporters and other biotin-binding proteins partition biotin to compartments involved in biotin signaling: Cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nuclei. The activity of cell signals such as biotinyl-AMP, Sp1 and Sp3, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and receptor tyrosine kinases depends on biotin supply. Consistent with a role for biotin and its catabolites in modulating these cell signals, greater than 2000 biotin-dependent genes have been identified in various human tissues. Many biotin-dependent gene products play roles in signal transduction and localize to the cell nucleus, consistent with a role for biotin in cell signaling. Posttranscriptional events related to ribosomal activity and protein folding may further contribute to effects of biotin on gene expression. Finally, research has shown that biotinidase and holocarboxylase synthetase mediate covalent binding of biotin to histones (DNA-binding proteins), affecting chromatin structure; at least seven biotinylation sites have been identified in human histones. Biotinylation of histones appears to play a role in cell proliferation, gene silencing, and the cellular response to DNA repair. Roles for biotin in cell signaling and chromatin structure are consistent with the notion that biotin has a unique significance in cell biology. (PMID: 15992684 , 16011464 ).
Structure
Data?1628564083
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+)-cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4]imidazole-4-valeric acidChEBI
(3AS,4S,6ar)-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazole-4-valeric acidChEBI
5-(2-Oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoic acidChEBI
BiotinaChEBI
BiotineChEBI
BiotinumChEBI
cis-(+)-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno[3,4]imidazoline-4-valeric acidChEBI
cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4)imidazole-4-valeric acidChEBI
cis-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-D)imidazoline-4-valeric acidChEBI
Coenzyme RChEBI
D-(+)-BiotinChEBI
D-BiotinChEBI
Vitamin b7ChEBI
Vitamin HChEBI
BioepidermKegg
(+)-cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4]imidazole-4-valerateGenerator
(3AS,4S,6ar)-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazole-4-valerateGenerator
5-(2-Oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoateGenerator
cis-(+)-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno[3,4]imidazoline-4-valerateGenerator
cis-Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4)imidazole-4-valerateGenerator
cis-Tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-D)imidazoline-4-valerateGenerator
(+)-BiotinHMDB
-(+)-BiotinHMDB
1SWKHMDB
1SWNHMDB
1SWRHMDB
BiodermatinHMDB
Bios HHMDB
Bios IIHMDB
D(+)-BiotinHMDB
D-Biotin factor SHMDB
delta-(+)-BiotinHMDB
delta-BiotinHMDB
delta-Biotin factor SHMDB
Factor SHMDB
Factor S (vitamin)HMDB
Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4-D)imidazole-4-pentanoateHMDB
Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4-D)imidazole-4-pentanoic acidHMDB
Hexahydro-2-oxo-[3as-(3aa,4b,6aa)]-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazole-4-pentanoateHMDB
Hexahydro-2-oxo-[3as-(3aa,4b,6aa)]-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazole-4-pentanoic acidHMDB
Hexahydro-2-oxo-[3as-(3alpha,4beta,6alpha)]-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazole-4-pentanoateHMDB
Hexahydro-2-oxo-[3as-(3alpha,4beta,6alpha)]-1H-thieno[3,4-D]imidazole-4-pentanoic acidHMDB
Lutavit H2HMDB
MeribinHMDB
Rovimix H 2HMDB
Vitamin-HHMDB
Biotin hermes brandHMDB
Biotin roche brandHMDB
Biotin simons brandHMDB
Biotin strathmann brandHMDB
Biotin ziethen brandHMDB
Biotin ratiopharmHMDB
Roche brand OF biotinHMDB
Roche, biotineHMDB
E+b pharma brand OF biotinHMDB
MedobiotinHMDB
BiokurHMDB
BiotinratiopharmHMDB
Gelfert, biotinHMDB
Hermes brand OF biotinHMDB
Hermes, biotinHMDB
Medopharm brand OF biotinHMDB
Ratiopharm brand OF biotinHMDB
Biocur brand OF biotinHMDB
Biotin dermapharm brandHMDB
Biotine rocheHMDB
DeacuraHMDB
Dermapharm brand OF biotinHMDB
GabunatHMDB
MedebiotinHMDB
RombellinHMDB
Ziethen brand OF biotinHMDB
Biotin biocur brandHMDB
Biotin gelfertHMDB
Biotin hermesHMDB
Biotin medopharm brandHMDB
Biotin ratiopharm brandHMDB
Biotin-ratiopharmHMDB
H, VitaminHMDB
Medea brand OF biotin sodium saltHMDB
Simons brand OF biotinHMDB
Strathmann brand OF biotinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H16N2O3S
Average Mass244.3110 Da
Monoisotopic Mass244.08816 Da
IUPAC Name5-[(3aS,4S,6aR)-2-oxo-hexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl]pentanoic acid
Traditional Name5-[(3aS,4S,6aR)-2-oxo-hexahydrothieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl]pentanoic acid
CAS Registry Number58-85-5
SMILES
[H]OC(=O)C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])C([H])([H])[C@]1([H])SC([H])([H])[C@]2([H])N([H])C(=O)N([H])[C@]12[H]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H16N2O3S/c13-8(14)4-2-1-3-7-9-6(5-16-7)11-10(15)12-9/h6-7,9H,1-5H2,(H,13,14)(H2,11,12,15)/t6-,7-,9-/m0/s1
InChI KeyYBJHBAHKTGYVGT-ZKWXMUAHSA-N
Experimental Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor EmailDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, 100%_DMSO, experimental)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Predicted Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDepositor OrganizationDepositorDeposition DateView
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 252 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 50 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 75 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 101 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 126 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 151 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 176 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 201 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 226 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Wishart LabWishart LabDavid Wishart2021-06-20View Spectrum
Chemical Shift Submissions
Not Available
Species
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Abelmoschus esculentusFooDB
Abramis bramaFooDB
AcipenseridaeFooDB
Actinidia chinensisFooDB
Agaricus bisporusFooDB
AgaveFooDB
Allium ampeloprasumFooDB
Allium ascalonicumFooDB
Allium cepaFooDB
Allium cepa L.FooDB
Allium fistulosumFooDB
Allium sativumFooDB
Allium schoenoprasumFooDB
Allium tuberosumFooDB
Aloysia triphyllaFooDB
AmaranthusFooDB
Amelanchier alnifoliaFooDB
Anacardium occidentaleFooDB
Ananas comosusFooDB
Anarhichas lupusFooDB
AnatidaeFooDB
Anethum graveolensFooDB
Angelica keiskeiFooDB
AnguilliformesFooDB
Annona cherimolaFooDB
Annona muricataFooDB
Annona reticulataFooDB
Annona squamosaFooDB
Anthriscus cerefoliumFooDB
Apium graveolensFooDB
Apium graveolens var. dulceFooDB
Apium graveolens var. rapaceumFooDB
Apium graveolens var. secalinumFooDB
Arabidopsis thalianaKNApSAcK Database
Arachis hypogaeaFooDB
Arctium lappaFooDB
Armoracia rusticanaFooDB
Artemia salinaLOTUS Database
Artemisia dracunculusFooDB
Artemisia vulgarisFooDB
Artocarpus altilisFooDB
Artocarpus heterophyllusFooDB
Asparagus officinalisFooDB
AstacideaFooDB
Attalea speciosaFooDB
Auricularia auricula-judaeFooDB
Auricularia polytrichaFooDB
Avena sativa L.FooDB
Averrhoa carambolaFooDB
Basella albaFooDB
Belone beloneFooDB
Benincasa hispidaFooDB
Bertholletia excelsaFooDB
Beta vulgarisFooDB
Beta vulgaris ssp. ciclaFooDB
Borago officinalisFooDB
Bos taurusFooDB
BrachyuraFooDB
Brassica alboglabraFooDB
Brassica junceaFooDB
Brassica napusFooDB
Brassica napus var. napusFooDB
Brassica oleraceaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. capitataFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. italicaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. sabaudaFooDB
Brassica oleracea var. viridisFooDB
Brassica rapaFooDB
Brassica rapa ssp. chinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. pekinensisFooDB
Brassica rapa var. rapaFooDB
Brassica ruvoFooDB
Brosimum alicastrumFooDB
Byrsonima crassifoliaFooDB
Cajanus cajanFooDB
Canarium ovatumFooDB
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Cantharellus cibariusFooDB
Capparis spinosaFooDB
Capsicum annuumFooDB
Capsicum annuum L.FooDB
Capsicum annuum var. annuumFooDB
Capsicum chinenseFooDB
Capsicum pubescensFooDB
Carica papaya L.FooDB
CarideaFooDB
Carissa macrocarpaFooDB
Carthamus tinctoriusFooDB
Carum carviFooDB
CaryaFooDB
Carya illinoinensisFooDB
CastaneaFooDB
Castanea crenataFooDB
Castanea mollissimaFooDB
Castanea sativaFooDB
Ceratonia siliquaFooDB
Chamaemelum nobileFooDB
Chamerion angustifoliumFooDB
Chenopodium albumFooDB
Chenopodium quinoaFooDB
Chrysanthemum coronariumFooDB
Cicer arietinumFooDB
Cichorium endiviaFooDB
Cichorium intybusFooDB
CinnamomumFooDB
Cinnamomum aromaticumFooDB
Cinnamomum verumFooDB
CirsiumFooDB
Citrullus lanatusFooDB
Citrus ×limon (L.) Burm. f. (pro sp.)FooDB
Citrus aurantiifoliaFooDB
Citrus latifoliaFooDB
Citrus limonFooDB
Citrus maximaFooDB
Citrus paradisiFooDB
Citrus reticulataFooDB
Citrus X sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro. sp.)FooDB
ClupeinaeFooDB
Cocos nuciferaFooDB
Coffea arabica L.FooDB
Coffea canephoraFooDB
Colocasia esculentaFooDB
ColumbidaeFooDB
Corchorus olitoriusFooDB
CoregonusFooDB
Coriandrum sativum L.FooDB
CorylusFooDB
Corylus avellanaFooDB
Crateva religiosaFooDB
Crocus sativusFooDB
Cucumis meloFooDB
Cucumis metuliferusFooDB
Cucumis sativus L.FooDB
CucurbitaFooDB
Cucurbita maximaFooDB
Cucurbita moschataFooDB
Cuminum cyminumFooDB
Curcuma longaFooDB
CyclopteridaeFooDB
Cydonia oblongaFooDB
Cymbopogon citratusFooDB
Cynara cardunculusFooDB
Cynara scolymusFooDB
Daucus carotaFooDB
Daucus carota ssp. sativusFooDB
Dimocarpus longanFooDB
DioscoreaFooDB
Dioscorea pentaphyllaFooDB
DiospyrosFooDB
Diospyros kakiFooDB
Diospyros virginianaFooDB
Durio zibethinusFooDB
Dysphania ambrosioidesFooDB
ElaeisFooDB
Eleocharis dulcisFooDB
Elettaria cardamomumFooDB
Empetrum nigrumFooDB
EngraulidaeFooDB
Eragrostis tefFooDB
Eriobotrya japonicaFooDB
Eruca vesicaria subsp. SativaFooDB
Esox luciusFooDB
EucheumaFooDB
Eugenia javanicaFooDB
Eugenia unifloraFooDB
Eutrema japonicumFooDB
Fagopyrum esculentumFooDB
Fagopyrum tataricumFooDB
FagusFooDB
Feijoa sellowianaFooDB
Ficus caricaFooDB
Flammulina velutipesFooDB
Foeniculum vulgareFooDB
Fragaria x ananassaFooDB
GadiformesFooDB
GadusFooDB
Gallus gallusFooDB
Garcinia mangostanaFooDB
GastropodaFooDB
Gaylussacia baccataFooDB
Ginkgo bilobaFooDB
Glycine maxFooDB
GossypiumFooDB
Grifola frondosaFooDB
Hedysarum alpinumFooDB
Helianthus annuus L.FooDB
Helianthus tuberosusFooDB
Hibiscus sabbariffaFooDB
Hippoglossus hippoglossusFooDB
Hippophae rhamnoidesFooDB
Homo sapiensLOTUS Database
Hordeum vulgareFooDB
Hyssopus officinalis L.FooDB
Illicium verumFooDB
Ipomoea aquaticaFooDB
Ipomoea batatasFooDB
JuglansFooDB
Juglans ailanthifoliaFooDB
Juglans cinereaFooDB
Juglans nigra L.FooDB
Juglans regiaFooDB
Lablab purpureusFooDB
Lactuca sativaFooDB
    • DG. Criossby. The Organic Constituents of Food. I. Lettuce. J. Food Sci. 1963, 28(3):347-355
Lagenaria sicerariaFooDB
Lagopus mutaFooDB
Lathyrus sativusFooDB
Laurus nobilis L.FooDB
Lens culinarisFooDB
Lentinus edodesFooDB
Lepidium sativumFooDB
LeporidaeFooDB
Lepus timidusFooDB
Levisticum officinaleFooDB
Limanda limandaFooDB
Linum usitatissimumFooDB
Lipomyces starkeyiLOTUS Database
Litchi chinensisFooDB
Lota lotaFooDB
Luffa aegyptiacaFooDB
LupinusFooDB
Lupinus albusFooDB
Lysinibacillus sphaericusLOTUS Database
MacadamiaFooDB
Macadamia tetraphyllaFooDB
Malpighia emarginataFooDB
MalusFooDB
Malus pumilaFooDB
Mammea americanaFooDB
Mangifera indicaFooDB
Manihot esculentaFooDB
Manilkara zapotaFooDB
Maranta arundinaceaFooDB
Matricaria recutitaFooDB
Matteuccia struthiopterisFooDB
Medicago sativaKNApSAcK Database
Melanogrammus aeglefinusFooDB
Meleagris gallopavoFooDB
Melissa officinalis L.FooDB
MenthaFooDB
Mentha aquaticaFooDB
Mentha arvensisFooDB
Mentha spicataFooDB
Mentha x piperitaFooDB
Merlangius merlangusFooDB
Mespilus germanicaFooDB
Metroxylon saguFooDB
Micromesistius poutassouFooDB
Microstomus kittFooDB
Molva molvaFooDB
Momordica charantiaFooDB
MorchellaceaeFooDB
Morella rubraFooDB
Moringa oleiferaFooDB
MorusFooDB
Morus nigraFooDB
Mus musculusLOTUS Database
Musa acuminataFooDB
Musa x paradisiacaFooDB
MyricaFooDB
Myristica fragransFooDB
MytilidaeFooDB
NelumboFooDB
Nelumbo nuciferaFooDB
Nephelium lappaceumFooDB
NephropidaeFooDB
Nephrops norvegicusFooDB
Nuphar luteaFooDB
Ocimum basilicumFooDB
Octopus vulgarisFooDB
Oenothera biennisFooDB
Olea europaeaFooDB
Oncorhynchus mykissFooDB
OpuntiaFooDB
Opuntia cochenilliferaFooDB
Opuntia macrorhizaFooDB
Origanum majoranaFooDB
Origanum onitesFooDB
Origanum vulgareFooDB
Origanum X majoricumFooDB
Oryza rufipogonFooDB
Oryza sativaFooDB
Ovis ariesFooDB
Pachyrhizus erosusFooDB
Panax ginsengFooDB
Pangium eduleFooDB
Panicum miliaceumFooDB
PapaverFooDB
Paraburkholderia phymatum-
Passiflora edulisFooDB
Pastinaca sativaFooDB
Pediomelum esculentumFooDB
PerciformesFooDB
Perideridia oreganaFooDB
Persea americanaFooDB
Petasites japonicusFooDB
Petroselinum crispumFooDB
Phaseolus coccineusFooDB
Phaseolus lunatusFooDB
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
Phoenix dactyliferaFooDB
Photinia melanocarpaFooDB
Phyllostachys edulisFooDB
PhysalisFooDB
Physalis philadelphica var. immaculataFooDB
Phytolacca americanaFooDB
Pimenta dioicaFooDB
Pimpinella anisumFooDB
PinusFooDB
Pinus edulisFooDB
Piper nigrum L.FooDB
Pistacia veraFooDB
Pisum sativumFooDB
PleuronectidaeFooDB
PleuronectiformesFooDB
Pleurotus ostreatusFooDB
PollachiusFooDB
Polygonum alpinumFooDB
Portulaca oleraceaFooDB
Pouteria sapotaFooDB
Prunus armeniacaFooDB
Prunus aviumFooDB
Prunus avium L.FooDB
Prunus cerasusFooDB
Prunus domesticaFooDB
Prunus dulcisFooDB
Prunus persicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. nucipersicaFooDB
Prunus persica var. persicaFooDB
Prunus tomentosaFooDB
Prunus virginianaFooDB
Psidium cattleianumFooDB
Psidium guajavaFooDB
Psophocarpus tetragonolobusFooDB
Punica granatumFooDB
Pyrus communisFooDB
Pyrus pyrifoliaFooDB
QuercusFooDB
RanidaeFooDB
Raphanus sativusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusFooDB
Raphanus sativus var. sativusFooDB
Reinhardtius hippoglossoidesFooDB
Rheum rhabarbarumFooDB
Ribes aureumFooDB
Ribes glandulosumFooDB
Ribes nigrumFooDB
Ribes rubrumFooDB
Ribes uva-crispaFooDB
RosaFooDB
Rubus arcticusFooDB
Rubus chamaemorusFooDB
Rubus idaeusFooDB
Rubus occidentalisFooDB
Rubus spectabilisFooDB
RumexFooDB
Rumex acetosaFooDB
Rumex articusFooDB
Saccharina japonicaFooDB
Sagittaria latifoliaFooDB
Salix pulchraFooDB
SalmonidaeFooDB
SalvelinusFooDB
Salvelinus namaycushFooDB
Salvia elegansFooDB
Salvia hispanicaFooDB
Salvia officinalisFooDB
Salvia rosmarinusFooDB
Sambucus nigraFooDB
Sambucus nigra L.FooDB
Sander luciopercaFooDB
Satureja hortensis L.FooDB
Satureja montanaFooDB
ScombridaeFooDB
Scophthalmus maximusFooDB
Scorzonera hispanicaFooDB
Sebastes alutusFooDB
Sebastes viviparusFooDB
Secale cerealeFooDB
Sechium eduleFooDB
Sesamum indicumFooDB
Sesbania bispinosaFooDB
SiluriformesFooDB
Sinapis albaFooDB
SisymbriumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformeFooDB
Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicumFooDB
Solanum melongenaFooDB
Solanum quitoenseFooDB
Solanum tuberosumFooDB
Sorbus aucupariaFooDB
Sorghum bicolorFooDB
Spinacia oleraceaFooDB
Squalus acanthiasFooDB
Sus scrofa domesticaFooDB
Synechococcus elongatusLOTUS Database
Syzygium aromaticumFooDB
Syzygium cuminiFooDB
Syzygium jambosFooDB
Tamarindus indicaFooDB
Taraxacum officinaleFooDB
Tetragonia tetragonioidesFooDB
ThelespermaFooDB
Theobroma cacaoFooDB
ThunnusFooDB
Thymus pulegioidesFooDB
Thymus vulgarisFooDB
Tilia cordataFooDB
Tilia L.FooDB
Tragopogon porrifoliusFooDB
Trigonella foenum-graecumFooDB
Trisopterus esmarkiiFooDB
TriticumFooDB
Triticum aestivumFooDB
Triticum durumFooDB
Triticum speltaFooDB
Triticum turanicumFooDB
Typha angustifoliaFooDB
VacciniumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium angustifolium X Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium arboreumFooDB
Vaccinium corymbosumFooDB
Vaccinium deliciosumFooDB
Vaccinium elliottiiFooDB
Vaccinium macrocarponFooDB
Vaccinium myrtilloidesFooDB
Vaccinium myrtillusFooDB
Vaccinium ovalifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium ovatumFooDB
Vaccinium oxycoccosFooDB
Vaccinium parvifoliumFooDB
Vaccinium reticulatumFooDB
Vaccinium stamineumFooDB
Vaccinium uliginosumFooDB
Vaccinium vitis-idaeaFooDB
Valerianella locustaFooDB
VanillaFooDB
Verbena officinalisFooDB
Viburnum eduleFooDB
Vicia fabaFooDB
Vigna aconitifoliaFooDB
Vigna angularisFooDB
Vigna mungoFooDB
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Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculataFooDB
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Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Escherichia coliKNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biotin and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a ureido (tetrahydroimidizalone) ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBiotin and derivatives
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBiotin and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Biotin
  • Imidazolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Heterocyclic fatty acid
  • Thia fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Thiolane
  • 2-imidazoline
  • Isourea
  • Azacycle
  • Dialkylthioether
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carboximidamide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Thioether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point232 °CNot Available
Boiling Point573.58 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility0.22 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP0.861 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.22 g/LALOGPS
logP0.17ALOGPS
logP0.32ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area78.43 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity60.05 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability24.92 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
HMDB IDHMDB0000030
DrugBank IDDB00121
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB014510
KNApSAcK IDC00000756
Chemspider ID149962
KEGG Compound IDC00120
BioCyc IDBIOTIN
BiGG ID33931
Wikipedia LinkBiotin
METLIN ID243
PubChem Compound171548
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15956
Good Scents IDrw1068841
References
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Thuy LP, Belmont J, Nyhan WL: Prenatal diagnosis and treatment of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. Prenat Diagn. 1999 Feb;19(2):108-12. [PubMed:10215065 ]
  3. Zempleni J, McCormick DB, Mock DM: Identification of biotin sulfone, bisnorbiotin methyl ketone, and tetranorbiotin-l-sulfoxide in human urine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Feb;65(2):508-11. [PubMed:9022537 ]
  4. Bussolati G, Gugliotta P, Volante M, Pace M, Papotti M: Retrieved endogenous biotin: a novel marker and a potential pitfall in diagnostic immunohistochemistry. Histopathology. 1997 Nov;31(5):400-7. [PubMed:9416479 ]
  5. Mock DM, Stadler DD, Stratton SL, Mock NI: Biotin status assessed longitudinally in pregnant women. J Nutr. 1997 May;127(5):710-6. [PubMed:9164991 ]
  6. Thuy LP, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL: A new immunochemical assay for biotin. Clin Chim Acta. 1991 Oct 31;202(3):191-7. [PubMed:1814646 ]
  7. Limat A, Suormala T, Hunziker T, Waelti ER, Braathen LR, Baumgartner R: Proliferation and differentiation of cultured human follicular keratinocytes are not influenced by biotin. Arch Dermatol Res. 1996;288(1):31-8. [PubMed:8750932 ]
  8. Bigham SL, Ballard JD, Giles KD, Clelland CS, Jeffcoat R, Griffin KS, Farley TD, Bushman DR, Wright JR: Synthesis and possible applications of biotin-linked copper clusters. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR. 1990;22(2):63-72. [PubMed:2100006 ]
  9. Mock DM, Stadler DD: Conflicting indicators of biotin status from a cross-sectional study of normal pregnancy. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997 Jun;16(3):252-7. [PubMed:9176832 ]
  10. Bingham JP, Bian S, Tan ZY, Takacs Z, Moczydlowski E: Synthesis of a biotin derivative of iberiotoxin: binding interactions with streptavidin and the BK Ca2+-activated K+ channel expressed in a human cell line. Bioconjug Chem. 2006 May-Jun;17(3):689-99. [PubMed:16704206 ]
  11. Mock DM: Biotin status: which are valid indicators and how do we know? J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):498S-503S. [PubMed:10064317 ]
  12. Mock DM, Dyken ME: Biotin catabolism is accelerated in adults receiving long-term therapy with anticonvulsants. Neurology. 1997 Nov;49(5):1444-7. [PubMed:9371938 ]
  13. Mock DM, Nyalala JO, Raguseo RM: A direct streptavidin-binding assay does not accurately quantitate biotin in human urine. J Nutr. 2001 Aug;131(8):2208-14. [PubMed:11481419 ]
  14. Mardach R, Zempleni J, Wolf B, Cannon MJ, Jennings ML, Cress S, Boylan J, Roth S, Cederbaum S, Mock DM: Biotin dependency due to a defect in biotin transport. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jun;109(12):1617-23. [PubMed:12070309 ]
  15. Mock DM, Heird GM: Urinary biotin analogs increase in humans during chronic supplementation: the analogs are biotin metabolites. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jan;272(1 Pt 1):E83-5. [PubMed:9038855 ]
  16. Fujimoto W, Inaoki M, Fukui T, Inoue Y, Kuhara T: Biotin deficiency in an infant fed with amino acid formula. J Dermatol. 2005 Apr;32(4):256-61. [PubMed:15863846 ]
  17. Schenker S, Hu ZQ, Johnson RF, Yang Y, Frosto T, Elliott BD, Henderson GI, Mock DM: Human placental biotin transport: normal characteristics and effect of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993 Jun;17(3):566-75. [PubMed:8333586 ]
  18. Mock NI, Malik MI, Stumbo PJ, Bishop WP, Mock DM: Increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and decreased urinary excretion of biotin are sensitive early indicators of decreased biotin status in experimental biotin deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Apr;65(4):951-8. [PubMed:9094878 ]
  19. Grafe F, Wohlrab W, Neubert RH, Brandsch M: Transport of biotin in human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Mar;120(3):428-33. [PubMed:12603856 ]
  20. Gravel RA, Narang MA: Molecular genetics of biotin metabolism: old vitamin, new science. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Jul;16(7):428-31. [PubMed:15992684 ]
  21. Zempleni J: Uptake, localization, and noncarboxylase roles of biotin. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:175-96. [PubMed:16011464 ]
  22. Holmberg A, Blomstergren A, Nord O, Lukacs M, Lundeberg J, Uhlen M: The biotin-streptavidin interaction can be reversibly broken using water at elevated temperatures. Electrophoresis. 2005 Feb;26(3):501-10. [PubMed:15690449 ]