Np mrd loader

You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on NP-MRD.
Record Information
Created at2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Updated at2021-10-07 20:39:57 UTC
NP-MRD IDNP0000459
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Natural Product Identification
Common NameAzelaic acid
DescriptionAzelaic acid (AZA) is a naturally occurring saturated nine-carbon dicarboxylic acid (COOH (CH2)7-COOH). It possesses a variety of biological actions both in vitro and in vivo. Interest in the biological activity of AZA arose originally out of studies of skin surface lipids and the pathogenesis of hypochromia in pityriasis versicolor infection. Later, it was shown that Pityrosporum can oxidize unsaturated fatty acids to C8-C12 dicarboxylic acids that are cornpetitive inhibitors of tyrosinase in vitro. Azelaic acid was chosen for further investigation and development of a new topical drug for treating hyperpigmentary disorders for the following reasons: It possesses a middle-range of antityrosinase activity, is inexpensive, and more soluble to be incorporated into a base cream than other dicarboxylic acids. Azelaic acid is another option for the topical treatment of mild to moderate inflammatory acne vulgaris. It offers effectiveness similar to that of other agents without the systemic side effects of oral antibiotics or the allergic sensitization of topical benzoyl peroxide and with less irritation than tretinoin. Azelaic acid is less expensive than certain other prescription acne preparations, but it is much more expensive than nonprescription benzoyl peroxide preparations. Whether it is safe and effective when used in combination with other agents is not known. (PMID: 7737781 , 8961845 ).
1,7-Heptanedicarboxylic acidChEBI
1,9-Nonanedioic acidChEBI
Acide azelaiqueChEBI
Acidum azelaicumChEBI
Anchoic acidChEBI
Lepargylic acidChEBI
N-Nonanedioic acidChEBI
Nonanedioic acidKegg
Azalaic acidHMDB
Azelainic acidHMDB
Emerox 1110HMDB
Emerox 1144HMDB
Emery'S L-110HMDB
Heptanedicarboxylic acidHMDB
Nonanedioic acid azelaic acidHMDB
Nonanedioic acid homopolymerHMDB
Poly(azelaic anhydride)HMDB
Polyazelaic anhydrideHMDB
Azelaic acid, dilithium saltHMDB
Azelaic acid, dipotassium saltHMDB
Azelaic acid, disodium saltHMDB
Azelaic acid, monosodium saltHMDB
Azelaic acid, potassium saltHMDB
Azelaic acid, sodium saltHMDB
Monosodium azelateHMDB
Azelic acidHMDB
alpha,Omega-nonanedioic acidHMDB
Α,ω-nonanedioic acidHMDB
Azelaic acidPhytoBank
Chemical FormulaC9H16O4
Average Mass188.2209 Da
Monoisotopic Mass188.10486 Da
IUPAC Namenonanedioic acid
Traditional Nameazelaic acid
CAS Registry Number123-99-9
InChI Identifier
Spectrum TypeDescriptionDepositor IDDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)Wishart Lab2021-06-20View Spectrum
Species of Origin
Species NameSourceReference
Anas platyrhynchos
Anser anser
Averrhoa carambolaKNApSAcK Database
Bison bison
Bos taurus
Bos taurus X Bison bison
Bubalus bubalis
Cannabis sativaCannabisDB
      Not Available
Capra aegagrus hircus
Cervus canadensis
Dromaius novaehollandiae
Equus caballus
Gallus gallus
Lagopus muta
Lepus timidus
Melanitta fusca
Meleagris gallopavo
Numida meleagris
Ovis aries
Phaseolus vulgarisFooDB
Phasianus colchicus
Schnabelia tetradontaKNApSAcK Database
Solanum tuberosumKNApSAcK Database
Struthio camelus
Sus scrofa
Sus scrofa domestica
Species Where Detected
Species NameSourceReference
Homo sapiens (Urine)KNApSAcK Database
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMedium-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point106.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point356.00 to 357.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility2.4 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.57Hansch CH, Leo A and Hoekman DH. "Exploring QSAR: Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constraints. Volume 1" ACS Publications (1995).
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility2.28 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.15ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity46.54 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability20.5 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
DrugBank IDDB00548
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012192
KNApSAcK IDC00045634
Chemspider ID2179
KEGG Compound IDC08261
BioCyc IDCPD0-1265
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAzelaic_Acid
PubChem Compound2266
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID48131
Good Scents IDrw1220821
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [PubMed:8412012 ]
  3. Mayer-da-Silva A, Gollnick H, Detmar M, Gassmuller J, Parry A, Muller R, Orfanos CE: Effects of azelaic acid on sebaceous gland, sebum excretion rate and keratinization pattern in human skin. An in vivo and in vitro study. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1989;143:20-30. [PubMed:2475995 ]
  4. Hermanns JF, Petit L, Martalo O, Pierard-Franchimont C, Cauwenbergh G, Pierard GE: Unraveling the patterns of subclinical pheomelanin-enriched facial hyperpigmentation: effect of depigmenting agents. Dermatology. 2000;201(2):118-22. [PubMed:11053913 ]
  5. Korman SH, Mandel H, Gutman A: Characteristic urine organic acid profile in peroxisomal biogenesis disorders. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2000 Jun;23(4):425-8. [PubMed:10896310 ]
  6. Rocamora V, Puig L, Romani J, de Moragas JM: Amelanotic lentigo maligna melanoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Cutis. 1999 Jul;64(1):53-6. [PubMed:10431675 ]
  7. Russell JJ: Topical therapy for acne. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Jan 15;61(2):357-66. [PubMed:10670502 ]
  8. Webster G: Combination azelaic acid therapy for acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Aug;43(2 Pt 3):S47-50. [PubMed:10898830 ]
  9. Del Rosso JQ: A status report on the medical management of rosacea: focus on topical therapies. Cutis. 2002 Nov;70(5):271-5. [PubMed:12469780 ]
  10. Liao DC: Management of acne. J Fam Pract. 2003 Jan;52(1):43-51. [PubMed:12540312 ]
  11. Del Rosso JQ: Medical treatment of rosacea with emphasis on topical therapies. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004 Jan;5(1):5-13. [PubMed:14680431 ]
  12. Wolf JE Jr: The role of topical metronidazole in the treatment of rosacea. Cutis. 2004 Jan;73(1 Suppl):19-28. [PubMed:14959942 ]
  13. Frampton JE, Wagstaff AJ: Azelaic acid 15% gel: in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2004;5(1):57-64. [PubMed:14979745 ]
  14. Halder RM, Richards GM: Management of dyschromias in ethnic skin. Dermatol Ther. 2004;17(2):151-7. [PubMed:15113282 ]
  15. Halder RM, Richards GM: Topical agents used in the management of hyperpigmentation. Skin Therapy Lett. 2004 Jun-Jul;9(6):1-3. [PubMed:15334278 ]
  16. Lindow KB: Rosacea. An overview of diagnosis and management. Adv Nurse Pract. 2004 Dec;12(12):27-32. [PubMed:15615217 ]
  17. Cayce KA, McMichael AJ, Feldman SR: Hyperpigmentation: an overview of the common afflictions. Dermatol Nurs. 2004 Oct;16(5):401-6, 413-6; quiz 417. [PubMed:15624705 ]
  18. Wolf JE Jr: Present and future rosacea therapy. Cutis. 2005 Mar;75(3 Suppl):4-7; discussion 33-6. [PubMed:15810803 ]
  19. van Zuuren EJ, Graber MA: The rigor of trials evaluating Rosacea treatments. Cutis. 2005 Mar;75(3 Suppl):13-6; discussion 33-6. [PubMed:15810805 ]
  20. Purdy S: Acne vulgaris. Clin Evid. 2005 Jun;(13):2038-59. [PubMed:16135322 ]
  21. Roebuck HL: Face up to rosacea. Nurse Pract. 2005 Sep;30(9):24-30, 35; quiz 36-7. [PubMed:16151303 ]
  22. Callender VD: Considerations for treating acne in ethnic skin. Cutis. 2005 Aug;76(2 Suppl):19-23. [PubMed:16164153 ]
  23. Nally JB, Berson DS: Topical therapies for rosacea. J Drugs Dermatol. 2006 Jan;5(1):23-6. [PubMed:16468288 ]
  24. Fleischer AB Jr: The evolution of azelaic acid. Cutis. 2006 Feb;77(2 Suppl):4-6. [PubMed:16566281 ]
  25. Draelos ZD: The rationale for advancing the formulation of azelaic acid vehicles. Cutis. 2006 Feb;77(2 Suppl):7-11. [PubMed:16566282 ]
  26. Elewski B, Thiboutot D: A clinical overview of azelaic acid. Cutis. 2006 Feb;77(2 Suppl):12-6. [PubMed:16566283 ]
  27. Del Rosso JQ: The use of topical azelaic acid for common skin disorders other than inflammatory rosacea. Cutis. 2006 Feb;77(2 Suppl):22-4. [PubMed:16566285 ]
  28. Worret WI, Fluhr JW: [Acne therapy with topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics and azelaic acid]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2006 Apr;4(4):293-300. [PubMed:16638058 ]
  29. Liu RH, Smith MK, Basta SA, Farmer ER: Azelaic acid in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Aug;142(8):1047-52. [PubMed:16924055 ]
  30. Goodman G: Managing acne vulgaris effectively. Aust Fam Physician. 2006 Sep;35(9):705-9. [PubMed:16969442 ]
  31. Purdy S: Acne vulgaris. Clin Evid. 2006 Jun;(15):2183-201. [PubMed:16973084 ]
  32. Gupta AK, Gover MD, Nouri K, Taylor S: The treatment of melasma: a review of clinical trials. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Dec;55(6):1048-65. Epub 2006 Sep 28. [PubMed:17097400 ]
  33. Fitton A, Goa KL: Azelaic acid. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in acne and hyperpigmentary skin disorders. Drugs. 1991 May;41(5):780-98. [PubMed:1712709 ]
  34. van Zuuren EJ, Gupta AK, Gover MD, Graber M, Hollis S: Systematic review of rosacea treatments. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Jan;56(1):107-15. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [PubMed:17190628 ]
  35. Gupta AK, Gover MD: Azelaic acid (15% gel) in the treatment of acne rosacea. Int J Dermatol. 2007 May;46(5):533-8. [PubMed:17472690 ]
  36. Nguyen QH, Bui TP: Azelaic acid: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and its therapeutic role in hyperpigmentary disorders and acne. Int J Dermatol. 1995 Feb;34(2):75-84. [PubMed:7737781 ]
  37. Mackrides PS, Shaughnessy AF: Azelaic acid therapy for acne. Am Fam Physician. 1996 Dec;54(8):2457-9. [PubMed:8961845 ]